PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE TUBER OF

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WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCESSeema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesSJIF Impact Factor 2.786Volume 3, Issue 6, 1958-1965.Research ArticleISSN 2278 – 4357PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE TUBER OFBRACHYSTELMA EDULIS COLL. AND HELMSL. - AN ENDEMICTO PENINSULAR, INDIA.More Seema Rajaram 1* and Jadhav Rathod2, Varsha Dilip21&2Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004.Article Received on14 April 2014,Revised on 05 May 2014,Accepted on 27 May 2014ABSTRACTBrachystelma edulis Coll. and Helmsl. belonging to the familyAsclepiadaceae. This species is not specifically mentioned formedicinal use in the literature, but many of the tuberous Brachystelma*Correspondence for Authorare known to be used medicinally for headache, stomachache and coldMore Seema Rajaramin children in Satara districts. The present paper deals withDepartment of Botany, Shivajipharmacognostical, fluorescence and phytochemical analysis of theUniversity, Kolhapur-416004tubers of B. edulis. Moisture content showed 97.01 % fresh weight inthe tuber. Transverse section showed presence of starch grains in thetuber of B. edulis. When the powder exposed to UV light alcoholic NaOH extract, acetoneextract, aqueous extract and methanolic extract showed pale green fluorescence. Preliminaryphytochemical studies show the presence of tannins, cardiac glycosides in methanolic extract.Presence of carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoides, alkaloids, ash indicate that the plant havemedicinal and food properties, due to this its exploitation necessary.Keywords: Pharmacognosy, Preliminary phytochemical screening, Fluorescence analysis,Powder behaviour, Tuber, Brachystelma edulis.INTRODUCTIONThe genus Brachystelma R. Br. is represented by about 100 species of the world. There are14 species in India and 3 species in Maharashtra. The name Brachystelma is derived from theGreek words ‘Brachy’ means short and ‘stelma’ means crown, garland, wreath (for the natureof the corona). This species is originally known from Burma and Siam (Thailand). The B.edulis is one of them belongs to family asclepiadaceae and commonly called as Galya orHanuman batata. It is distributed on partially degraded hill slopes and open hill tops amongwww.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1958

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciencesgrasses. It is a perennial dwarf herb with linear to narrowly elliptic leaves bearing tuberousroots. Flowering of the species is very peculiar. After first shower of premansoon in mid Maythe plants sprout out initially and produce scaly leaves. On the lateral sides of each scaly leafone or two flowers are produced usually one on each side of scaly leaf. After flowering andfruiting the plant produce foliaceous leaves. Rarely Flowers, fruit and foliaceous leaves areproduced simultaneously. Main flowering season is May to June. The tubers of B. edulis areknown to be eaten as a food supplements in rural areas when there is food shortage. Thus it issource of food during famine. Wild animals such as hare, rats and wild bear are also fond ofthese tubers; it is a survival of food for plants, humans and animals (Patil, 1990). Tuberscooked as vegetable with salt and spices.Fig. 1: Habit of Brachystelma edulisThe tubers are also a definite source of water in the dry habitats where the plant occurs. B.edulis is not specifically mentioned for medicinal use in the literature, but many of thetuberous Brachystelma are known to be used medicinally for headache, stomach ache andcolds in children in Satara district. It is significant famine food plant and therefore there ispossibility of utilizing the tubers as food in rural people. A very less numbers of researchfindings were reported on this plant especially no systematic pharmacognostical studies hasbeen reported hence present study was investigate the pharmacognostical characters,fluorescence analysis and phytochemical analysis of the plant was carried out. A very lessattention was given towards its systematic study and almost it’s neglected from scientificworld. The focus of the study is to investigation bioactive potential of leaf and tubers of B.edulis.MATERIAL AND METHODSThe tubers of Brachystelma edulis Coll. and Helmsl Asclepiadaceae were collected fromvarious localities of Satara and Kolhapur district, during rainy season (June –Sept.) inwww.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1959

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciencesvegetative and summer (May-June) in flowering and fruiting from various places of Sataraand Kolhapur district. The plant was identified and confirmed with the help of ‘Flora ofMaharashtra’.The fresh tubers were made free from aerial parts washed with water to remove dirt materialsand fresh tubers were made into free hand sections observed under microscope for studies ofmacroscopical and microscopical characters according to the method of Brain and Turner(1975). For microscopical studies cross sections were prepared according to the Johnsen(1940). Moisture and ash value determined by the method of AOAC (1990). The shade driedmaterial were powdered for phytochemical (Kokate, 1986 and Harborne, 1998) andflorescence characteristics (Chase and Pratt, 1949 and Kokoski et. al. 1958) of the drug withdifferent chemical reagents observed under day and UV light of short and long wavelength.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe tuber of B. edulis belongs to family Asclepiadaceae. This species is not specificallymentioned for medicinal use in the literature but many of the tuberous Brachystelma areknown to be used medicinally for headache, stomach ache and colds in children.Macroscopic characteristics: The macroscopical findings of the B. edulis it is herb 12 cmin height, erect, perennial; tuberous root stock. Tubers perennial about 4-12 cm in diameter,approximately 5 to 75 gm, white cream in colour, flattened, smooth, soft and fleshy, withcharacteristic odour and bitter taste and some black spot throughout the surface. Stem teretewith retrorse hairs. Leaves sessile or subsessile, 3-8 x 0.4-1cm, linear or linear-lanceolate tonarrowly elliptic. Flowers 1 to 2 on lateral side of scaly or foliaceous leaves. Follicles 5 to 11cm long, paired horn shaped tapering at apex. Seeds elongated and coma silky.Fig. 2: B. edulis tuberwww.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1960

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesMicroscopic characteristics: The transverse section of the tuber shows epidermis, periderm,vessels and pith. It consists of periderm of 6 to 7 layers of wide and distinct phellem andequally developed phelloderm. In which starch grains are scattered throughout the tissue. Thecentral cortex of the tuber consists of several radial, elongated vascular strands having a fewwide xylem elements associated with xylem fibers. Phloem occurs in the thick block, outer tothe xylem. The inner ground tissue is also parenchymatous with dense load of starch grains.Fig. 3: T. S. of B. edulis tuberFig. 4: T. S. of tuber shows vesselFig. 5: T. S. of tuber shows peripheral regionPowder characters: Powder of tuber shows presence of cork cells, xylem vessels, epidermalcells, etc. The powdered behaviour revealed that the presence of tannin, starch, protein,carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, etc (Table No. 2). The fluorescence analyses of powderedin short and long wavelength are incorporated in Table No. 3).www.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1961

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesPhytochemical screening: The preliminary phytochemical analysis (Table. No. 4) showingpresence of tannin, phenols, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and saponin. Moisture content ofthe tuber is 97.01 % fresh weight and ash content 11 % dry weight. Ash value represents theinorganic salts naturally occurring in the drug and adhering to it. Also moisture content in thetuber is high; it is significant to food as well as medicinal property.The macroscopic as well as microscopic studies of B. edulis revealed that by using theirdiagnostic features can easily identify this plant for further investigation. Ash and moisturepercentage these values helpful to identify sample of genuine drug (Table No. 1). Alsodifferent extracts were examined under day light and UV light to find out the presence offluorescence compound within them (Table No. 3). Also studied behaviour of differentchemical reagents. When physical and chemical parameters are inadequate as it oftenhappens with the powdered drugs, the plant material may be identified from their adulterantson the basis of fluorescence study. Preliminary phytochemical test for petroleum ether,chloroform, methanol, alcohol and water extract of the drug were carried out. It shows thepresence of alkaloids, saponin, tannin, phenol, Cardiac glycoside (Table No. 4).Table No. 1: Ash value, moisture content of tuber of Brachystelma edulis.Sr. No.12ConstantsValues (%)Moisture (Fresh weight)Ash (Dry weight)97.0111Table No. 2: Powder behaviour of tubers treated with different chemical wder as suchPowder 1N HNO3Powder 1N HCLPowder 1N NaOH(aq.)Powder 5 % IodinePowder 40 % NaOH Lead acetatePowder Conc.HNO3 AmmoniaPowder Conc. H2SO4Powder 5 % FeCl3Powder 5% Aq. KOHPowder Aq. AgNO3 (1 %)Vol 3, Issue 6, 2014.Colour developed inday lightBrownCream colourCream colourDark brown colourDark Blue colourCream colourBrown colourPurplish brownBrownColour change brownPpt.1962

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesTable No. 3: Fluorescence analysis of B. edulis TuberSr.No.123456789101112UV lightVisible lightShort wavelength Long wavelength254 nm365 nmBrownWhiteBrownBrownPale GreenBlackCream colourPale greenBlackYellowish orange Pale greenBlackCream colourPale greenBlackBrownBlackBlackCream colourCascade greenBlackPale creamCascade greenGreyGreenPale greenBlackBrownGreenBlackish greyBlackYellow BlackBlackBrownGreen to BlackBlackTreatmentPowder as suchPowder waterPowder NaOH in waterPowder NaOH in AlcoholPowder HClPowder conc. H2SO4Powder HNO3Powder 10 % HClPowder AcetonePowder 5 % KOHPowder iodinePowder FeCl3Table No. 4: Preliminary phytochemical screening of tubers of B. edulisSr.PetTestsChloroform --3Saponin-- --4Tannin---- 5Xanthoprotein------6Phenol---- 7Cardiac Glycosides---- presence of constituent; --- absence of constituentAlcoholWater-- -- ---- ----- -------CONCLUSIONThe Pharmacognostical study which includes macroscopy, microscopy, powder behaviour,fluorescence studies and phytochemical analysis gives valuable information. This will helpfor correct identification of this plant for future investigation. The preliminary phytochemicalstudies show the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannin, phenol, cardiac glycosides, starch andprotein, etc.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFundingThe authors are thankful to UGC-BSR, New Delhi, for funding Basic Scientific ResearchFellowship to support of this work.www.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1963

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesREFERENCES1. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists,Washington DC 1990.2. Brain KR, Turner TD. The practical evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals: Bristol, WrightScientechnica, 1975, pp. 4-9.3. Brindha P, Saraswathy A, Sasikala A, Purushothaman KK. (1990). Anatomical andphytochemical methods in the identification of Indian drugs pendant pattai Plectranthusurticifolius: J Res Ed Ind Med, 1990; (4): 11-16.4. Felix R, Nirmal Kumar N, Leon Stephan Raj T. Pharmacognostical study of Dioscoreaoppositifolia L: Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2009; 13: 77-82.5. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rded., London, UK; Chapman and Hall: 1998 pp 90, 203.6. Johansen DA. Plant microtechnique: McGraw- Hill Book Co. Inc; New York andLondon: 1940, pp. 523.7. Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy: 1st ed., New Delhi; Vallabh Prakashan: 1986, pp.111.8. Madhavan V, Tijare R, Mythreyi R, Gurudeva M, Yoganarasimhan S. Pharmacognosticalstudies on the root tubers of Asparagus gonoclados Baker- Alternate source for theAyurvedic drug Shatavari. Ind J Natur Prod Resour, 2010; 1(1): 57-62.9. Mukherjee K, Ray LN. Phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal plant speciespart-II. Int J Crude Drug Res, 1986; 24 (4) 187-205.10. C Nisha Shri, Balaji J, Venkatramanan S, Madhumathi KL. Pharmacognostical andpreliminary phytochemical screening of the root and rhizome of Corallocarpus epigaeus.Int J Pharm Biomed Res, 2010; 1(1): 24-27.11. Panda SK, Das D, Tripathy NK. Pharmacognostical studies on root tubers ofChlorophytum borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res,2010; 2(4): 13-17.12. Pramod Kumar, Devala Rao G., Lakshmayya Bilakanti, Ramachansra Setty S.Pharmacognostical studies on the tubers of Momordica tuberosa Cogn., Cucurbitaceae.Braz J Pharmacogn, 2010; 20(1).13. Pratt RJ, Chase CR. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs with particular referenceto development of a system of identification. J Am Pharm Assoc, (Sci Edi) 1949; 38: 324333.www.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1964

Seema et al.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences14. Kokoski CJ, Kokoski RJ, Salma FJ. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drug underultraviolet radiation. J Am Pharm Assoc, 1958; 47: 715-717.15. Singh NP, Lakshminarasimhan P, Karthikeyan S, Prasanna PV. Flora of MaharashtraState: Dicotyledons. Vol. II; Botanical Survey of India (BSI). Calcutta, India. 2001.16. Sudhakar A, Ramesh C, Nagaraju N, Sri Rama Murthy K. Pharmacognostical studies onthe root tubers of Pimpinella tirupatiensis Bal. and Subr.-An endemic to Tirumala Hillsof Eastern Ghats, India. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res, 2011; 3(3): 56-60.17. Trease GE and Evans WC: Pharmacognosy. Bailler, Tindall, London, 1982; 735-738.www.wjpps.comVol 3, Issue 6, 2014.1965

(1940). Moisture and ash value determined by the method of AOAC (1990). The shade dried material were powdered for phytochemical (Kokate, 1986 and Harborne, 1998) and . Pale Green Pale green Pale green Pale green Black Cascade green Cascade green Pale green Green . London

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