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Table of ContentsCoverTitle PageA Drawing by St. John of the CrossCopyrightsTable of ContentsForwardGENERAL INTRODUCTIONBiographical SketchThe Early YearsCarmelite VocationThe Teresian IdealConflicts of JurisdictionPoet and Spiritual FatherFinal YearsA Portrait of the SaintBiographical ChronologyThe WritingsNote on The Drawing of Christ on the CrossPOETRYIntroduction to the Poetry1. The Spiritual CanticleCantico Espiritual (Primera redacción: CA)2. The Dark NightNoche Oscura3. The Living Flame of LoveLlama De Amor Viva4. Stanzas by the same [author] concerning an ecstasyexperienced in high contemplation.

Coplas del mismo hechas sobre un éxtasis de hartacontemplación.5. Stanzas of the soul that suffers with longing to see God.Coplas del alma que pena por ver a Dios.6. Stanzas given a spiritual meaning.Otras del mismo a lo divino.7. Stanzas applied spiritually to Christ and the soul.Otras canciones a lo divino de Cristo y el alma.8. Song of the soul that rejoices in knowing God through faith.Cantar del alma que se huelga de conocer a Dios por fe.9. RomancesRomances10. A romance on the psalmRomance sobre el salmo11. A gloss (with spiritual meaning).Glosa "a lo divino."12. A gloss (with a spiritual meaning).Glosa "a lo divino."13. Christmas RefrainLetrilla Navideña14. The Sum of PerfectionSuma de la perfección15. The Spiritual Canticle (CB)Cantico Espiritual (CB)THE SAYINGS OF LIGHT AND LOVEIntroduction to The Sayings of Light and LovePrologueSayings 80-122Sayings 123-158

Sayings 159-175THE ASCENT OF MOUNT CARMELIntroduction to The Ascent of Mount CarmelThe Sketch of the MountThe PoemThe TreatiseBook OneBooks Two and ThreeSketch of Mount Carmel by St. John of the CrossEnglish Translation of Terms UsedThemeStanzasPrologueBook OneChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15

Book TwoChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18Chapter 19Chapter 20Chapter 21Chapter 22Chapter 23Chapter 24Chapter 25Chapter 26Chapter 27Chapter 28

Chapter 29Chapter 30Chapter 31Chapter 32Book ThreeChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18Chapter 19Chapter 20Chapter 21Chapter 22Chapter 23Chapter 24

Chapter 25Chapter 26Chapter 27Chapter 28Chapter 29Chapter 30Chapter 31Chapter 32Chapter 33Chapter 34Chapter 35Chapter 36Chapter 37Chapter 38Chapter 39Chapter 40Chapter 41Chapter 42Chapter 43Chapter 44Chapter 45THE DARK NIGHTIntroduction to The Dark NightA CommentaryThe DoctrinePrologue for the ReaderStanzas Of The SoulBook OneChapter 1

Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Book TwoChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14Chapter 15

Chapter 16Chapter 17Chapter 18Chapter 19Chapter 20Chapter 21Chapter 22Chapter 23Chapter 24Chapter 25THE SPIRITUAL CANTICLEIntroduction to The Spiritual CanticleThe Theme and Origin of the PoemExpression of the IneffableA Story About LoveThe Time of CompositionThe CommentaryThe Elements of the CommentaryThe Two Redactions of the CommentaryPrologueStanzas between the Soul and the BridegroomThemeStanza 1Stanza 2Stanza 3Stanza 4Stanza 5Stanza 6Stanza 7

Stanza 8Stanza 9Stanza 10Stanza 11Stanza 12Stanza 13Stanzas 14 and 15Stanza 16Stanza 17Stanza 18Stanza 19Stanza 20 and 21Stanza 22Stanza 23Stanza 24Stanza 25Stanza 26Stanza 27Stanza 28Stanza 29Stanza 30Stanza 31Stanza 32Stanza 33Stanza 34Stanza 35Stanza 36Stanza 37Stanza 38

Stanza 39Stanza 40THE LIVING FLAME OF LOVEIntroduction to The Living Flame of LoveThe PoemThe CommentaryPrologueStanzas the Soul Recites in Intimate Union With God.Stanza 1Stanza 2Stanza 3Stanza 4SPECIAL COUNSELSIntroduction to The PrecautionsThe PrecautionsAgainst the WorldAgainst the DevilAgainst Oneself and the Shrewdness of SensualityIntroduction to the Counsels to a ReligiousCounsels to a Religious on How to Reach PerfectionDegrees of PerfectionIntroduction to the Censure and OpinionCensure and OpinionLETTERSIntroduction to The LettersLetter 1Letter 2Letter 3Letter 4

Letter 5Letter 6Letter 7Letter 8Letter 9Letter 10Letter 11Letter 12Letter 13Letter 14Letter 15Letter 16Letter 17Letter 18Letter 19Letter 20Letter 21Letter 22Letter 23Letter 24Letter 25Letter 26Letter 27Letter 28Letter 29Letter 30Letter 31Letter 32Letter 33

Glossary of TermsAbout Us

Cover

Title PageThe Collected Worksof St. Johnof the CrossTHIRD EDITIONTranslated byKieran Kavanaugh, O.C.D.Otilio Rodriguez, O.C.D.With revisions and introductionsby Kieran Kavanaugh, O.C.D.ICS PublicationsInstitute of Carmelite StudiesWashington, D.C.

A Drawing by St. John of the Cross

CopyrightsICS Publications2131 Lincoln Road NEWashington, D.C. 20002-1199www.icspublications.org Washington Province of Discalced Carmelite Friars, Inc., 1991, 2017All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by anyinformation, storage or retrieval system without prior written permission from thepublisher.Cover illustration:Drawing of the Crucified Christby St. John of the CrossMade by St. John between 1574–1577 and given to Sister Ana Maria of Jesus;now kept at the Monastery of the Incarnation, Avila, Spain.(See page 37 for details)Cover design and typesetting by Rose DesignProduced and printed in the United States of AmericaLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataJohn of the Cross, Saint, 1542-1591[Works. English. 1991]The collected works of St. John of the Cross translated by Kieran Kavanaugh and OtilioRodriguez; with introductions by Kieran Kavanaugh. - Rev. ed.P. cm.Translation of Obras de Sanjuan de la CruzIncludes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 10: 0-935216-15-4 (Hardcover)

ISBN 13: 0-935216-15-8ISBN 10: 0-935216-14-6 (Paperback)ISBN 13:978-0-935216-14-1ISBN epub: 978-0-935216-93-61. Mysticism-Catholic Church 2. CatholicChurch-Doctrines.I. Title II. Title: Collected works of Saint John of the Cross.BX89OJ623313 1991230'.2-dc2O 90-26713CIP

Table of ContentsTable of ContentsForwardGENERAL INTRODUCTIONBiographical SketchBiographical ChronologyThe WritingsNote on The Drawing of Christ on the CrossPOETRYIntroduction to the Poetry1. The Spiritual Canticle (First redaction: CA)Cantico Espiritual (Primera redacción: CA)2. The Dark NightNoche Oscura3. The Living Flame of LoveLlama De Amor Viva4. Stanzas concerning an ecstasy experienced in high contemplationCoplas del mismo hechas sobre un éxtasis de harta contemplación.5. Stanzas of the soul that suffers with longing to see GodCoplas del alma que pena por ver a Dios.6. Stanzas given a spiritual meaningOtras del mismo a lo divino.7. Stanzas applied spiritually to Christ and the soul

Otras canciones a lo divino de Cristo y el alma.8. Song of the soul that rejoices in knowing God through faithCantar del alma que se huelga de conocer a Dios por fe.9. RomancesRomances10. A romance on the psalm "By the waters of Babylon" [Ps. 137]Romance sobre el salmo "Super flumina Babylonis" [Ps. 137].11. A gloss (with spiritual meaning)Glosa "a lo divino."12. A gloss (with a spiritual meaning)Glosa "a lo divino."13. Christmas RefrainLetrilla Navideña14. The Sum of PerfectionSuma de la perfección15. The Spiritual Canticle (CB)Cantico Espiritual (CB)THE SAYINGS OF LIGHT AND LOVEIntroduction to The Saying of Light and LovePrologue and Sayings 1-79Sayings 80-122Sayings 123-158Sayings 159-175THE ASCENT OF MOUNT CARMELIntroduction to The Ascent of Mount Carmel

Sketch of Mount Carmel by St. John of the CrossEnglish Translation of Terms used in the St. John's Original DrawingThemeStanzasPrologueBook OneChapter 1: Some remarks about the two different nightsthrough which spiritual persons pass in both the lower andhigher parts of their nature. A commentary on the first stanza.Chapter 2: The nature of the dark night through which a souljourneys to divine union.Chapter 3: The first cause of this night - the privation of theappetite in all things. The reason for the use of the expression"night."Chapter 4: The necessity of truly passing through this darknight of sense (the mortification of the appetites) in order tojourney to union with God.Chapter 5: Continuation of the same matter. Proofs frompassages and figures of Sacred Scripture for the necessity ofjourneying to God through this dark night, the mortification ofthe appetites.Chapter 6: The harm, privative as well as positive, thatappetites cause in the soul.Chapter 7: How the appetites torment a person. Proofs throughcomparisons and passages from Sacred Scripture.Chapter 8: The appetites darken and blind a person.Chapter 9: The appetites defile the soul. Proofs throughcomparisons and passages from Sacred Scripture.Chapter 10: The appetites weaken a soul and make it lukewarmin the practice of virtue.

Chapter 11: Proofs of how freedom from all appetites, even thesmallest, is necessary to attain divine union.Chapter 12: The answer to another question. An explanation ofthe kinds of appetites that can bring this harm on a soul.Chapter 13: The manner and method of entering this night ofsense.Chapter 14: An explanation of verse 2 of the first stanza.Chapter 15: An exposition of the remaining verses of the firststanza.Book TwoChapter 1: The Second StanzaChapter 2: Faith, the second cause or part of this night. Twoproofs of why it is darker than the first and third parts.Chapter 3: Arguments, passages, and figures from Scripture inproof that faith is a dark night for the soul.Chapter 4: A general discussion of how the soul with respect toits own efforts must remain in darkness so as to be well guidedby faith to supreme contemplation.Chapter 5: Explanation of the nature of union with God. Anillustration.Chapter 6: The theological virtues perfect the faculties of thesoul and produce emptiness and darkness in them.Chapter 7: The extreme narrowness of the path leading toeternal life. The denudation and freedom required of those whotread it. The nakedness of the intellect.Chapter 8: No creature or knowledge comprehensible to theintellect can serve it as a proximate means for divine unionwith God.Chapter 9: Faith is the proximate and proportionate means tothe intellect for the attainment of the divine union of love.Proofs from passages and figures of Sacred Scripture.

Chapter 10: A division of all apprehensions and ideascomprehensible to the intellect.Chapter 11: The impediment and harm caused by intellectualapprehensions arising from objects supernaturally representedto the exterior senses. The proper conduct of the soul in theirregard.Chapter 12: The nature of natural imaginative apprehensions.Proofs that they are inadequate means for the attainment ofunion with God. The harm caused from attachment to them.Chapter 13: The signs for recognizing in spiritual persons whenthey should discontinue discursive meditation and pass on tothe state of contemplation.Chapter 14: Proves the appropriateness of these three signsand explains why their presence is necessary for one toadvance.Chapter 15: Proficients, at the beginning of their entry into thisgeneral knowledge of contemplation, must at times practicediscursive meditation and work with the natural faculties.Chapter 16: The imaginative apprehensions representedsupernaturally to the phantasy are incapable of serving as aproximate means to union with God.Chapter 17: An answer to the proposed question. God'sprocedure and purpose in communicating spiritual goods bymeans of the senses.Chapter 18: The harm caused by some spiritual masters in notgiving souls adequate guidance with regard to the visionsmentioned. An explanation of how both can be misled even byvisions that have a divine origin.Chapter 19: Even though visions and locutions from God aretrue, we can be misled by them. Proofs from Sacred Scripture.

Chapter 20: Proofs from Sacred Scripture of how God's words,although always true, are not always certain. The certainty ofthem depends on the causes of the pronouncements.Chapter 21: God's displeasure at requests for revelations andlocutions, even though he sometimes answers them. Proofs ofhow he is frequently angered in spite of his condescension andresponse.Chapter 22: Resolving a doubt about why in the law of grace itis not permitted to question God through supernatural meansas it was in the old law. Proof from St. Paul.Chapter 23: Begins the discussion of the intellectualapprehensions that come in a purely spiritual way. Tells whatthey are.Chapter 24: Two kinds of supernatural, spiritual visions.Chapter 25: The nature and kinds of revelation.Chapter 26: The two kinds of knowledge of naked truths. Theproper conduct of the soul in their regard.Chapter 27: The second kind of revelation: the disclosure ofsecrets and hidden mysteries. The ways in which thisknowledge can be either a contribution or a hindrance towardunion with God. How the devil can greatly deceive souls in thismatter.Chapter 28: The nature and kinds of supernatural locutionsreceived by the spirit.Chapter 29: The first kind of locution the recollected spiritsometimes forms. A discussion of its origin and of the profit orharm it may occasion.Chapter 30: Interior words formally and supernaturallyproduced in the spirit. A warning about their danger and anecessary precaution against delusion.Chapter 31: Substantial locutions produced in the spirit. Howthese differ from formal locutions, the benefit that comes from

them, and the resignation and respect that should be had intheir regard.Chapter 32: The intellectual apprehensions of the spiritualfeelings supernaturally imparted to the soul. The cause of theseinterior feelings and the attitude necessary to avoid hinderingthe journey toward union with God.Book ThreeChapter 1: This book treats of purgation in the active night ofthe memory and the will. It presents doctrine about the attituderequired in the apprehensions of these two faculties so that asoul may reach union with God in perfect hope and charity.Chapter 2: The natural apprehensions of the memory. How tobecome empty of them in order to reach union with Godthrough this faculty.Chapter 3: Three kinds of harm received by the soul from notdarkening the memory in regard to knowledge and discursivereflection. A discussion of the first kind.Chapter 4: The second kind of harm, which comes from thedevil through the natural apprehensions of the memory.Chapter 5: The third kind of harm that follows from the natural,distinct knowledge of the memory.Chapter 6: The benefits derived from forgetting the naturalthoughts and knowledge of the memory.Chapter 7: The second kind of apprehension, which is ofsupernatural imaginative knowledge.Chapter 8: The harm caused from reflection on thissupernatural knowledge. Tells how many kinds of harm thereare.Chapter 9: The second kind of harm, the danger of falling intoself-esteem and vain presumption.

Chapter 10: The third kind of harm stemming from theimaginative apprehensions of the memory, that which comesfrom the devil.Chapter 11: An impediment to union with God, the fourth kindof harm resulting from the distinct supernatural apprehensionsof the memory.Chapter 12: Base and improper judgments about God, the fifthkind of harm arising from supernatural imaginative forms andapprehensions.Chapter 13: The benefits obtained through the rejection of theapprehensions of the imagination. Answers certain objectionsand explains the difference between the natural and thesupernatural imaginative apprehensions.Chapter 14: Spiritual knowledge in the memory.Chapter 15: A general rule of conduct for spiritual persons intheir use of the memory.Chapter 16: The beginning of the treatise on the dark night ofthe will. A division of the emotions of the will.Chapter 17: The first emotion of the will. The nature of joy anda division of the objects of joy.Chapter 18: Joy in temporal goods. How a person should directit to God.Chapter 19: The harm caused from joy in temporal goods.Chapter 20: Benefits derived through the withdrawal of joyfrom temporal goods.Chapter 21: The vanity of willful joy in natural goods, and themethod of directing oneself through them to God.Chapter 22: The harm resulting from joy of will in naturalgoods.Chapter 23: The benefits the soul acquires from not rejoicing innatural goods.

Chapter 24: Sensory goods, the third kind of good in which thewill can place the emotion of joy. A discussion of their natureand number and of how the will should be directed to Godthrough the purgation of this joy.Chapter 25: The harm incurred by the desire for willful joy insensory goods.Chapter 26: The spiritual and temporal benefits resulting fromthe denial of joy in sensory goods.Chapter 27: The nature of moral goods, the fourth kind ofgoods, and the permissible manner of rejoicing in them.Chapter 28: Seven kinds of harm that can result from joy of thewill in moral goods.Chapter 29: Benefits derived through the removal of joy frommoral goods.Chapter 30: Supernatural goods, the fifth class of goods inwhich the will can rejoice. Their nature, the factorsdistinguishing them from spiritual goods, and how joy in themmust be directed to God.Chapter 31: Harm incurred from rejoicing in this class of goods.Chapter 32: Two benefits derived from the negation of joy insupernatural goods.Chapter 33: The nature and division of the sixth kind of goodthat is a possible object of joy for the will.Chapter 34: The proper conduct of the will as to joy in thedistinct spiritual goods communicable to the intellect andmemory.Chapter 35: Delightful spiritual goods. A division.Chapter 36: Continues with the discussion of images; theignorance of some in their use of them.Chapter 37: Directing willful joy to God in order to avoid errorsand obstacles arising from images.

Chapter 38: Continues the discussion of motivating goods.Oratories and dedicated places of prayer.Chapter 39: How a person should use oratories and churches,directing the spirit to God through them.Chapter 40: Continues directing the spirit in this matter towardinterior recollection.Chapter 41: Some harm resulting from surrender to sensiblegratification in the use of devotional objects and places.Chapter 42: The proper conduct of the will in the use of threedifferent kinds of devotional places.Chapter 43: The large variety of ceremonies that many peopleuse as another motivating means for prayer.Chapter 44: The manner of directing the joy and strength of thewill to God in these devotions.Chapter 45: The second kind of distinct goods in which the willcan vainly rejoice.THE DARK NIGHTIntroduction to The Dark NightPrologue for the ReaderStanzas of the SoulBook OneChapter 1: Quotes the first verse and begins to discuss theimperfections of beginners.Chapter 2: Some of the imperfections of pride possessed bybeginners.Chapter 3: Some imperfections of spiritual avarice commonlyfound in beginners.

Chapter 4: The imperfections of lust, the third capital vice,usually found in beginners.Chapter 5: The imperfections of the capital vice of anger intowhich beginners fall.Chapter 6: The imperfections of spiritual gluttony.Chapter 7: The imperfections of spiritual envy and sloth.Chapter 8: The beginning of the exposition of this dark night. Anexplanation of verse 1 of the first stanza.Chapter 9: Signs for discerning whether a spiritual person istreading the path of this sensory night and purgation.Chapter 10: The conduct required of souls in this dark night.Chapter 11: Explains three verses of the stanza.Chapter 12: The benefits this night causes in the soul.Chapter 13: Other benefits of this night of the senses.Chapter 14: An explanation of the last verse of the first stanza.Book TwoChapter 1: The beginning of the treatise on the dark night of thespirit. Explains when this night commences.Chapter 2: Other imperfections of these proficients.Chapter 3: An explanation for what is to follow.Chapter 4: The first stanza and its explanation.Chapter 5: Begins to explain how this dark contemplation is notonly night for the soul but also affliction and torment.Chapter 6: Other kinds of affliction suffered in this night.Chapter 7: A continuation of the same subject; other afflictionsand straits of the will.Chapter 8: Other afflictions that trouble the soul in this state.Chapter 9: Although this night darkens the spirit, it does so togive light.

Chapter 10: Explains this purgation thoroughly by means of acomparison.Chapter 11: The beginning of an explanation of verse 2 of thefirst stanza. Tells how the fruit of these dark straits is avehement passion of divine love.Chapter 12: The resemblance of this frightful night topurgatory. How the divine wisdom illumines those who sufferthis night on earth by the same illumination with which itillumines and purges the angels in heaven.Chapter 13: Other delightful effects of this dark night ofcontemplation in the soul.Chapter 14: An explanation of the three last verses of the firststanza.Chapter 15: Second StanzaChapter 16: An explanation of how the soul is secure when itwalks in darkness.Chapter 17: An explanation of the secrecy of this darkcontemplation.Chapter 18: An explanation of how this secret wisdom is also aladder.Chapter 19: An explanation of the first five of the ten steps onthe mystical ladder of divine love.Chapter 20: The remaining five steps of love.Chapter 21: An explanation of the term "disguised" and adescription of the colors of the disguise the soul wears in thisnight.Chapter 22: An explanation of verse 3 of the second stanza.Chapter 23: An explanation of the fourth verse. Tells of thesoul's wondrous hiding place during this night and how, thoughthe devil enters other very high places, he is unable to gainentry to this one.

Chapter 24: The concluding explanation of this second stanza.Chapter 25: A brief explanation of the third stanzaTHE SPIRITUAL CANTICLEIntroduction to The Spiritual CanticlePrologueStanzas between the Soul and the BridegroomThemeStanza 1Stanza 2Stanza 3Stanza 4Stanza 5Stanza 6Stanza 7Stanza 8Stanza 9Stanza 10Stanza 11Stanza 12Stanza 13Stanzas 14 and 15Stanza 16Stanza 17Stanza 18Stanza 19Stanzas 20 and 21Stanza 22

Stanza 23Stanza 24Stanza 25Stanza 26Stanza 27Stanza 28Stanza 29Stanza 30Stanza 31Stanza 32Stanza 33Stanza 34Stanza 35Stanza 36Stanza 37Stanza 38Stanza 39Stanza 40THE LIVING FLAME OF LOVEIntroduction to The Living Flame of LovePrologueStanzas the Soul Recites in Intimate Union With God.Stanza 1Stanza 2Stanza 3Stanza 4

SPECIAL COUNSELSIntroduction to The PrecautionsThe PrecautionsIntroduction to Counsels to a ReligiousCounsels to a Religious on How to Reach PerfectionIntroduction to the CensuresCensure and OpinionLETTERSIntroduction to LettersLetter 1: To Catalina de JesúsLetter 2: To María de SotoLetter 3: To Madre Ana de San AlbertoLetter 4: To the same Ana de San AlbertoLetter 5: To Madre Ana de San AlbertoLetter 6: To a discalced Carmelite nunLetter 7: To the discalced Carmelite nuns of BeasLetter 8: To the discalced Carmelite nuns of BeasLetter 9: To Madre Leonor BautistaLetter 10: To Padre Ambrosio MarianoLetter 11: To Doña Juana de PedrazaLetter 12: To a young lady from Narros del Castillo (Avila)Letter 13: To a discalced Carmelite friarLetter 14: To Madre María de JesúsLetter 15: To Madre Leonor de San GabrielLetter 16: To Madre María de JesúsLetter 17: To Magdalena del Espíritu Santo

Letter 18: To Padre Nicolás de Jesús (Doria)Letter 19: To Doña Juana de PedrazaLetter 20: To a discalced Carmelite nun suffering from scruplesLetter 21: To Madre María de JesúsLetter 22: To Madre Leonor de San GabrielLetter 23: To a person under his directionLetter 24: To Padre Luis de San AngeloLetter 25: To Madre Ana de JesúsLetter 26: To Madre María de la EncarnaciónLetter 27: To Madre María de la EncarnaciónLetter 28: To Doña Ana del Mercado y PeñalosaLetter 29: To a woman under his directionLetter 30: To Madre Ana de San AlbertoLetter 31: To Doña Ana del Mercado y PeñalosaLetter 32: To Padre Juan de Santa AnaLetter 33: To a discalced Carmelite nun in SegoviaGlossary of TermsAbout Us

ForwardThe Collected Works of St. John of the Cross first appeared, in a onevolume edition, in 1964. Since then numerous reprintings have beenmade in both hardback and paperback. In 1979, our publishersprinted a second edition that added an index and two brief,previously unknown letters.During the years that our English translation has been in print,major advances in sanjuanist scholarship have occurred, and newpopular critical editions of John's works have come out. Now, at thefourth centenary celebration of the death of St. John of the Cross in1591, seems the appropriate time to provide further enlightenmentfor his readers by incorporating the recent research into a revisedEnglish translation.To begin with, I have followed the practice in the new Spanisheditions of changing the order in which John's works appear. Editorsare now reminding readers of the benefit of reading the poems firstand letting the symbolism speak, before going on to the treatisesand commentaries. John never intended his readers to restrictthemselves to his commentaries, although certainly his explanationsare of inestimable value; they greatly expand our horizons. Also, inthe new Spanish editions, the Sayings of Light and Love precede thelarger works. Before undertaking the latter, John gave spiritualguidance in writing through brief, compact counsels that were likedense summaries of his oral teaching. These maxims overflow withspiritual wisdom and whet the appetite for more; they prepare theway for his major works.With the passing of years, I began thinking that it would be morebeneficial to the reader if some of the information in theintroductions were in footnotes at the appropriate place. Doing so inthis edition gave me an opportunity to include new informationabout doctrine and sources and some helpful cross-references. Also,

in the back of the book is a glossary of terms that gives the readerfurther explanations and references to some of John of the Cross'sterminology.Since our book first appeared, a number of new Englishtranslations of the Bible have come into general use. Their editorsuse the normal English spelling of Bible names in preference to thatbased on the Latin Vulgate. I have used this more common spellingand, when necessary, have adjusted the scriptural references.Especially in the psalms, the numbering in the Latin Vulgate differsfrom that of the Hebrew Scriptures, which the new translationsfollow. St. John of the Cross read and quoted Scripture from theLatin Vulgate and then made his own - at times quite free translations into Spanish. Occasionally his biblical passages seem tobe far from the reading offered in present-day versions. In suchcases the reader may find something closer to John's by consulting aDouay-Rheims version.A particularly sensitive problem today is the question ofdiscrimination in language. At present there is little agreementabout the best way to deal with many of the difficulties this poses.Since any piece of writing is a product of a particular time andculture, the views expressed in it and the language in which they areexpressed reflect a cultural conditioning, often quite different fromcontemporary ideas and concerns. I have preserved John'straditional and biblical ways of speaking about God and Christ,which often have a profound theological import, and his use ofmasculine nouns and pronouns. But writers of English, more andmore, shun the use of the masculine singular pronoun for thegeneric. Fidelity to John's thought poses no dilemma in this regard;writing in Spanish, he did not use the masculine for the generic sincehe expresses the pronoun by inflecting the verb and withoutspecifying gender. In various ways, I have avoided the masculinegeneric by recasting the sentence. Besides some other stylisticchanges, I revised passages that were not as clear as they might have

been or where by being more literal I could bring out nuances lost ina freer rendering.In preparing this revised edition I made continual use of twoparticularly valuable Spanish editions of the works of St. John of theCross: Sanjuan de la Cruz: Obras Completas, eds. José VicenteRodriguez and Federico Ruiz Salvador (Madrid: Editorial deEspiritualidad, 1980); and Sanjuan de la Cruz: Obras Completas, ed.,Eulogio Pacho (Burgos: Editorial Monte Carmelo, 1982). Theseeditions are so special because of their introductions, notes, andrevisions of the text. I owe a debt of gratitude to these editors.Thanks are due to David Malkovsky, Sr. Joseph Marie of theTrinity, H.T. and Jude Langsam for their work on the indexing andproduction of this volume. In addition, I owe many thanks to mycolleagues in the Institute of Carmelite Studies, especially Fr. StevenPayne, O.C.D., who offered some excellent suggestions, and Fr. RegisJordan, O.C.D., who, by attending to many time-consuming details,enabled me to concentrate on the revision itself. I regret that Fr.Otilio Rodriguez's health did not allow him to work with me on this.My hope is that this revised volume will continue to inspire andenlighten students and devotees of the teachings of St. John of theCross, the Church's Mystical Doctor.Kieran Kavanaugh, O.C.D.Carmelite MonasteryBoston, Massachusetts Abbreviations in references: A Ascent of Mount Carmel; N Dark Night; C Spiritual Canticle; F Living Flame; P Poetry; S Sayings of Light and Love; Pr Precautions; L Letters. The levels ofdivision of a work (book, chapter, paragraph number; or stanza,para

Letter 1 Letter 2 Letter 3 Letter 4 . Letter 5 Letter 6 Letter 7 Letter 8 Letter 9 Letter 10 Letter 11 Letter 12 Letter 13 Letter 14 Letter 15 Letter 16 Letter 17 . the intellect for the attainment of the divine union of love. Proofs from passages and figures of Sacred Scripture. Chapter 10: A division of all apprehensions and ideas

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