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,00q0NR.NT titONEill) 188 824'AUTROPTTTLE'INSTITUTION,/RC 012 093Kudlas, JohtThe PockClimbing Teacting Guide.American 'Alliance for Health Physi611 Education*APecreatiol4nd Dance (AARPEPD)p013 DATENOTE.-,79.,/V112p.: Not available in prip4r copy due to.publisher,apreference.:AVAILABLE-FPOM: Americat.Ailiance for.HealA, Physical tducation,Recreation, and Dance, 1201 SiXeenth Street, N.M*,.Washirtaton, DC-20036 ( 6.-95)EDPS ptIprscm OPMF01-.Plus.Postage. PC Not Ayailable frpm EDPS.*Advetture-Educat:ton.:* *Cout%e Content: CourseOb.lect.ives:Educaticnal Philosophy: EnvironmentalEduction: *Egepment: Experiential Learning;Illustfations: *Outdoor Education: *Safety Educatior:SecOlidary tducation: Self concept:* Skill DeveloPment:"IDENTIFIERS,*Teachl,na Guides*Ro0, Cli;lbina.ABSTPACT,-Thd vroduct of TO years of rock climbing.instructic")n,this guide prcvides,;material from which at instructoraan teach basicclimbing concepts.and safety skills as well as conduct a safe,enloyable rockCiimbing class in a higlschool setting. It'instructor with.kimiteTexperiencein climbing:114614ever, the neekfor teacher erttusiasm And patiende is effiphisized'.Also acCented are.'the positive aspects Pf psychological and physicalskill d;e4elopmen-e: For instance., rock 'climbing can provide a moderateemountiotstress:which can personal insightc1 promoteself-cbnfidence.: Safety aspects 4re dealt With it depth, eTphasizing"wliy-.s6methinVihas tb be done. Equipment reeds and care.are,.discussed ir tepms of both school budlets The 13-sess'ion.- course includes.1 class on the uThree--Roint Pule which retiustresstudents to crawi or walk.while,movirg only 1 limb at a time. Each-.class session tas a' sever.7poirt,format. This guide also includes,i.iong-segbent On constructing artificial climbing walls to provideexperience it Anty locale. (A.N1"0"--RepItAmptions'supplied by PDPS are the best that can be made*.*-.from the original *****************************0

0c\t0SIsAlt MI N V 01 141 Al IIII MI( A flopI Al I I "WINAli()N4i1 INcr trot!OrI f)II(ArION"s.sI 11AI WA'ssl PI 14 ., '11 ,0A,4() n4,,.I1 (111 "4,,A.\114.,,44 1111IIIIIII"PERMISSION TO FWPRODUCE THISMATERIAL IN MICROFICA ONLY.HAS BEEN GRANTED BYPP,41,4 ti tuoIm,sk4(1I4,(,.4.4110I4'1A,/,.1,1UIiflir 4141,r(111)L.TO IHE. EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFDIIMATION CENTER (ERIC),"


ATo MoM and Dad VanderhoofWho Belayed Me WellandEncouraged Me to Climb HigherWithout My Getting Too AloftMasculine nouns and pronouns are used in this,Guidefor both sexes.Endorsements of brand name pl-oducts represent theopinions of the author only.-Copyright 197001American Alliake for Health', Phytical Educationv4 Recreatron and Dante1261 Sixteenth Street, N.W.t,t'tWashington, D.C.20036,I.4.

D BIBLIOGRAPHY.APPENDIX.P4rental Permtssion FormStudent Check SheetClimbing Record Card (Sheet)Platfonil Braces and Emergency Ladder DrawingClinibing CertifieateRock Climbing--Written ,First AidDecision Making.,WeatherAreas,. 3.: 6,'.8)1010101.,ffules70v,,.EQUIPMENT NEEDS AND CARErisehtialsInventoryFirst Aid Kit ContentsCost Analys)sRope Care0t0.1517181'.1213,OURSE n,21I .-Introducing Rock ClimbingII--Teachin4, Three-Point RuleIII--Teaching Friction ClimbingIV--Teaching'Equipment Maintenance.,V--Teaching The Becsic KnotsVI--Teaching Support Systems And DelayingVII--Teaching Climbing SignalsVIII--Preparing For lhe Climbing TripIX--The Climbing Trip.,,X--Teaching The Rappelling BasicsXI--The Rappelling OutingXII--Student Conducted TripXIII--Course Evaluation021,,1.,f41.,22232527323941,424551.5354.

OUTING PROCEDURES%ARTIFICIAL CLIMBING fles For Wa111 Use'.61iThe PlyWood OptionThe Particle Wood Option6162\ Concrete Rocks62656566.Sandbox Mold.Fiberglas's Mold'Latek MoldPlastic.:Sheet-Plywood MoldAttaching Rocks to the WallSlab ConstructionPlatform ConstructionThe Emergency'Ladder466;7275-,./.78,'7ADVANCED INSTRUCTION U

1.RREFACEVThe exodus of the many pewle, especially young people, to the outdoors has*offdred physical educatiop a new challe4ge fo l. outdoor leisureeducation.Rock climbing is only one of the many Outdoor activities that'can be taught safely within tbe public schools. This with an air ofenvironmental responsibility. \The enclosed material is the result of 10 years of rock climbinginstruction at the high school level with More than 1000 students,receiviiig ins;ruction.This, in addjtion to the many state and national.'tdacher workshbps Plie conducted over the past several 'years. Instruction,such as. this, based on simplicity has proven to be safe.' With this mind, I've attempted to make this material simple, Understand,4nd functional.It is ty hope that thismaterial will be used in its*errtirety and considered a total prbgram.That is, the total instructfonalsegment should be read before an attempf is made to teach the program. This.011 help develop the attitude necessary to successfully and safely teachthe exhilarating sport of.rodk climbing.included.a segment on artificial climbing wallS so tha.t.aClimbing facility could be constructed to enhance instruction anclprovidea. climbing experience; regdrdless of your locale. Here, again, you will'need to devote eXtra time and effort to insure a safe climbing facillityand successful.experiences for students.c .,,.Welcome', good luck and good climbing.,go40PRIFACIIv111.

.ACKNOWLEOGMENT .soII to take this opptortunity4o.tharit several'people.fortheir encouragement, expertise and assistance. Wi0out'their help, thismanual would not be possible. First, my wife, Donna, for herpatience'with my projects and willingness to type "justone one more pate."Withbut her smile and support this wouIdlhave.bgena Much more diffitulttask.Next, Ed Johnson, a former student of-mine who drew all the'illustratiOns.' And Mr. Bob Robinson, who was willingitb take thetimefrom his busy schedule to.proofread thi's manual.Ahd the many climbersI've hadithe pieasure to work with, including Billagd.Mike Jackson andOr. Don Deaton: .And 'Dr. Dale Cruse,.of,the Universityof Utah, who firstgave me ihe in'spiration for this project in hisseminar class.FinPly,Lwould like to .thank the Rochester 'Public Schools for thC.oppOrtunityto develop a cllmbing.pc-ogram and climbingfacilities.All these'peoplethould be Consideved prime contributors to the Rock ClimbinsTeachthgGuide.Thank you all.4a.N.,THE!um CLIMBING TEACHING GUIDE

01:IINTRODUCTIONRock .climbing is-by no means a new sport.Enjoytng a heritagethat antedates mountaineering, rdck climbing was regarded as a healthysport by the Romans. / EmperorHadrian, for example, climbed up thees,ca-rpments of Mount/Etna in 104 A.D.In the 14th century, Petrarchoften'climbed in Provence,,The first climbing school was established at a monastery in France'sDordogne Valleysin 1426.In additidn, King Charles VIII of France, in1496, established a climbing school and appointed Beaupre' as theclimiking instructor.In gngland, John Atkinson, in l82.5 devised 'a method,of rock.climbing to remit lost,sheep. These latter two men mere des.tined to become the "fathers of rock climbing.",Even though climbing equipment and techniques of the mid-1800'scan surely be questioned, this period is referred the "golden heof climbing" with,manY European tourists seeking:to reach the summits'near'Zermatt.The ropei were shorter and made-of ioterior material sixthas hemp, flax and cotton. The techniques of."looping the rope" aroundboulders to anchor climbs and "btidy arrests" to prevent a partner's fallcertainly-contributed to the many multiple tragedies.In the United States, Seattle has ledthe wty in rock climbing,with tpe first climbing'wall constructed in 1941 at the William G. LongCamp.Since 1950, the French hove included rack climbing in,thOr curriculum on a limited basis, and a decade later the English began incorporating the sport i5to many of their elementary aad secondary schocils.'During the past few years there 4isbeen a vast amount of interestin ecology, precipitating the environmental movement and an exodus ofadventurous people to,the outddors to discover and investigate more fullyand personally nature's wonders. There hat been an attempt to affectivelyfeel this phenomenasand to cognitively understand it and man's 'interrelations.One of thellWoities that has exploded with its number of participants is the subject of this-text--rock'climbing. 'No longer is-thisinvigorating activity limited to a few mountaineers. All age groups andsexes can how part*cipate, depending 'upon their,ability And training.With prctper instructions most individuals can reach the emotional fulfillment and "environmental discovery" offered by rock climbing. Thegoal laf this. text provide the instrucpr with a guide so thatihemight better be able to teach these concepts safely and efficientlY.Some public., as well as private, institutions have ncludedirock'climbing into their elementary, junior,high school, and/or secondarycurriculums.Several colleges and universities, as well, lave providedclimbing instructton.Several outdoor adventure organizations, suCh asOutward Bound, National Outdoor Leadership School, aS wall as otherspontaneous climbing schools teach indepth coUrses in rock climbing.INTROOCTiON4e.A

.There has been, hbwever, littYe communication among these groups and eachis biased-toward its own Method of instruction, confusing neophyteinstructors at publit school levels. However it should be emphasizedthat many techniques have been developed by these organiiations which-; Are safe and suciessful,rthe.two most important.criteria for, inclusionof any innovation in cliMbing.- This text will 'attempt to describeseveral methods with their advantages.and disadvantages in an attempt'to provide the instructor Agith an oblectiVe choice. Emphasis wfllhowever,-upon simplicity 'and safety.(o'ft.The intentbof this text is to provide material' from.which theinstructor could teach basic climbing concepts and safety skills thatwould enable him to conduct safe and,enjoyable rock,climbing'classes inschoolatmospherel Ihis.text is designed for the instructor with lim-'ited experience Who wts4es to teach rock climbing classes. Mountains arenot necessary to rock climb, although their presente should be capitalizedupon,,and any outcropping of hard rock can be utilized.AThis guide is not designed' to "book-teach" mountaineering from "Ato Z.". Many texts attempteto do this dnd,many oelhave learned viathenotarenot151bok-tr al-error" method, Which is-dangerousbet. This isto imply that the many fine texts as.listed within the bibliographynot useful.,they are all excellent resource material, but they aredesi§ned fOi, instruction within the school environment.''Some concepts learned in roek climbing can be appliedto many.otherfacets of life. One such concept is the Ability to function under stress.Stress is when there is sufficient apprehension on the part of,the pticipant to require extraordinary measures to maintain an organized functioning. When in a stressful situation,-the climber has an opportunity tOre-evaluate and discover'himself,and his potentialities. This processcan be uMized in everyday life. Some studies have revealed the potential importance of rock climbing:Smith's study Of the Outward Bound Program, although more than ,arOck climbing dburse, showed'a positive impact on the participants' selfesteem.,4-Davis discovered that overcoming fear during rock climbing resultedin new levels of self-awareness and self-cbnfidence: He noted, however,that the fear must be overcoMe and transformed into enthusiasm before,self-awareness and self-actualization would occur.:There haVe been Many studies conducted relative to the effects ofoutdoor adventure programs, but few limited to rock climbing. Researchis desperately needed in this Area.10TIM ROCK CLIMBING TEACIkNO GUIDE0I;

4.PHILOSOPk.44To 'engage in a rock climbing endeavor necessitates making someserious decisions.It has been this author's experience is mucheasier, mbre functional end safer to teach a fewconcepts well,than many supeficially. .That is, it is.safer end less.compliCated toknow.two or three basic kdots welltthan many vaguely. Prime is always a,problem id conduttingla course like rotk climbing, -Aich requires flexibility within the structured framewoq of e school day. The.teachingrate'can only be ,as fast as the individual student's assimilation; theinstructton must be "open-ended" to provide additional challenge-for:the accelerated ttudent'as well as additionarassistance for less skilledparticipants.SUccesS of any program will be proportional to the enthusiasm of the instructor.This is nOt only true of rock climbinginstruction, INt of.all areas of education.Hence, the prerequisiteifor; such e task is.teachi6r enthusiasm.OBJECTIVES0The readers should ev,.aluate their motiations for reading this text.7rue introspection will reveal if they should proceed with activelyI/teaching rock Climbing, or if they should continue with more faMiliarteaching endeavors. That is, is rock climtpirg the vogue thing to do ordoes it offer meaningf0 experienceS for .students? If the movement ofactivities to the outdoors is simply the-"in" thing to do, then perhapsthe efforts of the reader and subsequent-financial support by the'lnstio'tution Might better,be allocated elsewhere.Let's examine possible psychologital and physiCal skills Conceptslearned through rock climbing.Concepts, for our.pdrposes , are ideas theparticipant might apply to other activities of life. It has been theauthor's experience that climbing does contribute to the realization ofthese concepts to varying degrees.,Psychological ConcepsDevelop'moderate amounts of stress to'gain iniight about oneselfand others.Modera e emounts of stress edcourage self-evaluation and the'reappraisal of relatIonships with others.Hence, a certain amount of adversestimuli 'functionsasf an aid for an individual to reach the "homeostatic"state with his envi onment.Overcoming fear opens horizons for new learning. Golant and2.Burton, in a surVey study, found that most people avoided environmentsl.".An which they had no experience with its pbssible hazards; people areafraid of the unknown. People who come through the fear may lesgen their,perception,of vulnerability.t3. ,Developing self-confidence is possible by overcoming personal -,.fear%This was one of the conclusions as brought forth by the Davis(previously mentiged). study.4.Self-co4cepts can be improved through new outdoor discoveries.1Koepke discovered that 44 participants' serf\concepts improved and they.mosOPHYANDowscrigs.

,viewed themSelves more po%itively after the Colorado Outward Boundexperience.-In terms of life time contributions ebck climbing Will benefitstudents according to specific criterio tasks:-1.In situations of vocationaT/ vocatiOnal u es of the outdoor ,.environment, the student will be abltb:Jdentify appropriate:and in-:.appropriate.actions and indicate tIé.ir responsib4lity in the sitUatiOn.bOed upcin personal Values, safety, alternativaud consequences.:.2.'In.situations.of vocatiohalfavocatjp. al: usesof the oUtdoOr:enviroment, the students Will be able-to re ogn(ze situattans'in,whichlegal responsibilities which protects the e,rIvironment wiWdoMinate oVerpersonaldesires. .3.In situations of Vocational/aVb tional uses of the outdoors,the students will be able to enjoy andpreciate the outdoor environment.*4.In situations of.vocational/ayocational Uses of the outdoors,.the,students will utilizeskills whityHwill-reflectAheir positive Valueand appreciation for the:environment, resulting in.apinimum of physicalimpact.on the environmeht,:5.In situations Of vocation41/avbcational uses Of the outdoors,the students will be able to identify'conflict situations and react under.stress using open communication,/problem sOlving skills and share respOn,.bsfilities.-.,,.,.6.Students will recognize vbcational opportunitits.within the area:of the outdoor environment.- c,7.In situations:of voCational/avocatibnal uses of the outdoors,thestudents Will recOgnize the -haimony and thedelicate balancede theoutdOor world.,.ir.9.-,,,1Spedific Rod; Climbing Skill Concepts.1. Properly learned sicillssand. proper equipment are necessary forsafe:participgtion.'2.,Cont1itioning, balance, strength, and logic are and enjoyable participation.3.SiMplicity.within a systemhinsure maximmtecurity, less'equip-Ment and fewer human errors.,4.A.wide base will moresecurely support the climber. This concepkis especially important in'preventing the;body fromoirouetting/twisting7froOts means of support,7.5. 4LoOking down at the feet will reveal more means' of support for, .,thp.legs. lostonovicec,climbers'ry 11 focus their attention upward,at their.'p- *hands.,6,Security is often procur d mo're easily by, direCting the upper.,.body,Weight aLwa,y from the means o1f support.The neophyte will attempt to:--4grasp" the rock face,'thereby reducing the.ahgle of his feet on.the.0supportive structure.'7.The morévthe means of support, the greater' the securqy for theeclimber. Thit is; bast011y the climber has four means of support; two,arms .ancktwo legs.Climbing'necessitates movinT these appendages one atfr.,.:.,.THE HOCK CLIMBING TEACHING GUIDE).90'

H.a time in a rhythmical fashion. This is referred to as the "three-pointrule." Only -one arM or leg -is moved at one'time; insuring.three otherpoints rbf support. This isTespecially infportant for beginner4.B. The "larger the muscle group, the more strength and fipportproved. Simply, the.feet and legs otfer.more support than the handsand'arms. A climbèr can support hmself.for hours on his feet; but forsome people only several-seconds by their finger tips. This might seem.obviatis,. but an, amazing number of people-will attempt to climb using .nosqy their hands and arms"Tpe greater the- surface area, the tore the- support and friction.scoricept js cmportant.,forsnot only friction %limbing, but.for hikingand ackpackirig as-well. For any friction movement, particularly on rockslabs, the. entire foot should -be placed flatly on the rock surface.sStanding, or wal king on the toes wi 11 only prosluce. tatigtie and fall s ;'using the heel to VW' tubercles shoulq be that it isdifficult thmfeel"ythe. rock'surface from this 'foot- position.10.printhrilyKnbwtedge of ariatoMy wilTenhance climbing succesS. This .refers'to:the foot, in that it is the most usecl supportive on the toes, heels, and otitside of the.' footNwhile 'face alimbingis poor, although' there wight be times when the climb offers .no'choice butto use one of these. Because Vie inside of tne feet are stfongest and'.provide most climbing visibility, th weight should be supported in .thisfoot position vihenever possitile.1-44 9.

0SAFETY.It ill paramount thitsafety concepts, rules, and procedures bestrictly taught and adhered to. Before embarking upon,the taSk of teachingrock climbing to beginners) the nstructor must ask himself severalquestions:1.' Are the benefits of the concepts imputant enough for the'students to warranf instructional physical riFks for the teacher?"2, Is the'instructor wfllInTto teach all the safety aspects aswell as 011 the "fun" Concepts?'1.Is the instruCtor willing to take total" command of theinstruction to insure safetyr4. Is he instructor milling to risk his own safety before taking-student risks?5.Is the instructor willing to spend extra time to inventoryand inspect equipment?06.Is the instructor willing to extend his patience with slowerand more cautious students.k4. Finally,,does the instructor reallywant to go through with this?.,,If the instructdr's answers to the above questions are "yes," thenhe should proceed. This might Appear to be a dIscouraging approach toa new iFtivity, and it PoSsibly is for those who'are not fully sincere/cognizant!of rock climbing "reality. )3bvigusly, the writer feels strong)yconcerning the need for these inquiries; however each sessjon necessitates're-evaluation and recommitment. It perchance the jnstrucfor rebctsnegatively, then heshould Proceed no further in that students' Securitymight be in question.A poov approach to teaching safety is to sermonize to the studentson the.opening day of class as to what the rules are. First, they willnot be familiar with,the equipment and might not even know the names ofclimbing paraphernalia; hence, confusion will occur. A better apProachis to emphasiZe safety as.the students become.familiar with the equipMentand the concept goals; the'students will understAnd the safety rationalemore fullj/., learn the safety concepts more quicgly, and cooperate more.effectively. Students are not necessattly interested in "what has to bebul more Interested in "why something has to bd done." Therefore demonstrations and a reasoning approach is more functional.It is imperative that climbing not be taught on a "one-shotb oreXpeMential basis, Several.seSslons will be required'before an adtualclimb with any degrt of exposure is-attempted; patience on the part ofthe instructor is n .esSary. 'Before venturing fO the outdoors for an"actual"rock climb', all the safety aspects should be,well described bythe ingructor and fully aSsimilated by the students. Safety mustbecome a teader and pupil,habit.!'.1Maximum security .can only be insured by safe equipment, proper'instruction, reasonable rules, outing procedures. . The presenti .tion of each one of the safety cOncepts should reveal their importance toOats safety.1fTHB ROCK CLIMBING TBACHING

There are six distinct times when eqUipment should be checked.This is especially true if other instructors are using the same equip(Specific equipment inspection will be coveredment with other classes.later in this manual when equipm'ent per se is discussed.) Thelfirst timethe equipment should be inspected is when it arrives from the dealer.Make.sure all'carabiners close and lock securely; ropes have no flaws,cuts or frays; webbing has eo flaws, cuts, frays or tape on it. AMtnnesota.climber was killed recently when the webbin'g he was using,broke.qt a joinfthat was taped together at the factory; therefore remove any.tape.that ls not on the ends of the rope/webbing. Next, the equipmentshould be checked immediately after class use, particularly after anouting.Before leaving on an outing with a class, the equipment shouldInventory time., or after the season, as wellbe quickly checked before beginning anew, necessitates checking. Finally, if any of thegear' has received any hard use, such as.supporting a climber's fall, ,then that system should receive careful attentitin before being used again.If for any easOn a piece of equipment is questionable, it should beThe price-of equipment can never justify taking unnecessatvdiscarded.A first aid kit is standard equipment for any unit involving leavingAlthough serious accidents do occur, this text wilthe school campus.Nevertheless, be prepared.discuss bow to limit their loccurfence.Ignoring the ppssibility will not eliminate the probability. The contentsof the first aid kit will not be discussed at this time,.but caution.should be relaYed to the reader, that "stock" first aid kits from drug.Astores' function only in aiding blisters, scratches and minor cuts.good first aid kit will have tp be con'structed. Many students haveThe instructor should not only beserious allergies that require shots.skilled in first aid,d but should also learn from a physician how toadminister emergency 'shots. Bee stings can be especially dangerous; theinstructor shoUld survey bis class before embarktng tediseover if thisIf so, the antidote should be kept in the firstpotential hazard exists.The simplest method to transpqrt a firstaid-kit or with the student!aid kit is to put it in a day pack and have a reliable student or aidecarry the pack.ottOn'an outing, it's most benbficiar to have another faculty memberth the clAss in addition to the rock climbing instructor. This will4ci1itatematters if an accident does,occur since someone with authorityld help the victim obtain proper care. 5eldom,is there a problemcprocuring this type of help. 'Most faculty members, as well as administrators, welcoull the opportunity to participate in the activity.'A helmet for each climber and belayer is'imperative., It isequallyimportant the belayer hAve a helmet in that the belayer will oft& beIf the class has to share helmets, itshowered by pebbles and rocks.nd-to-hand passing, and not by tossing. An injury due toshould bea flying Ifelmet surely would be difficult to explain. For that matter,no equlp nt should,be.thrown because it could become losft, broken, orinjury.causeThe method of instruction, of course, should always have etone ofta

safety.For example, all instruction should be kept simple and easy to,understand. ,Therg is 6 need for,an instructor to "dazzle" the student'withknowledgi; this only confuses and discourages students. Thismanual will emphasize the concept that simplicity enhances learning andinsures safety.One of the most complicated aspects of this sport .is that of knottying; many people have no concept of "what makes a.knot work." There,/are several things the inStructor can do to simplify this task, such atusing'only one or two types of knots. This could be referred to as thePone-knot system."Next, diagrams help greatly. -Thirdly, and as asafety precaution as well, everyone should tie his own knots; this'cannot be overemphasized. The student should be taught to tie a swamibelt or.a bowline around his.own waist without anyone else touching therope/webbing. Only then will'success, pride and security be evident onthe face of the student.The'instructor mus;t exercise some logic when progressing with hisclass,depending upon the locale of instruction. Some areas may offervery little relative to climbin potential; this will necessitate limiting.the 'instruction to match the area. Very soft, sedimentary rock areas willnot offer much safe.climbing, hence the emphasis in these areas,should beupon rappeling, knots, and'rope techniques. Seldom is this the casesince careful ,inspection wtll reveal a safe area.for's important, no matter what aredis used for instrUction, thatproper rappeling and climbing procedures and signals are used. Eachstudent should be individually checked to insure safety. Without proper'communication, climbing will be confusing, discouraging, and dangerous.The proper procedures and'signals will be detailed later.It is only'mentione now beCause of,implication.Be.use. climbing i§ a decision-making process,-the student shOuld be.the one who makes the decition Whether to climb/rappel or not.No4nethod fcoeinion Or force will make a climber of an individual; manystuden s requtre additional time for introspection before attempting toclimb/ appel.Teacher patience is a prime-importance; allowing studentsto th nk things out and review their own motivations will build the students' character more than forcing them to'climb/rappel. The psychologicalconcepts sought should be instilled'in the mind of,the instructor.Re-lated to the problem of "over-teaching or rover-coaching" the, student. Often, the instructor is'overly intent on providing success forthe student apd insists On telling the student where to place each hand pndfoot as the Uddent progresses up the obstacle: Again, the teacher would bemaking all'the decisions. When a "top appe" (that will be discussed/later) is u4ed and the student loses his'hipport, the fall willsonly beabout two fept. This "fall",and recovery will provide more,instruction \than-an entire session of verbal commands. Students' decisions willresult in irproved self-awareness.For safety sal p, the area to bvisited by a climbing'class shouldI.kop,"004.4011411wIrlmill171'TH4OCK CLIMBING TEACHING GUIDE*

41%,icome under close 'Scrutiny, 0ne approach an instructor might usels to\carefully analyze a topographical map and deteemine how far from theInstitution the climbing facility is, how long it will take to reach thearea, the potential'hazards of the area, and climbing variety of the areaObviously, the instructor will have:to pre-vjsit and, pre-climb the areato fully understand an3ipossible problems.Qtten the most dangerousaspect of any'Climb'is the.bus/car ride tothat-area; every effort to reduce htghway travel time.Bus transportation is always the safest and easiest in terms of maintaining superviSion and is least'susceptible to.liability.problems.ThtOost is more, of Course, but the advantages of safety, supervision, and-tegality always SOuld supersede costs. Regardless of who owns thedipmbing area, perhlission should be procured.If perchancethis ateaIt located upon schobl,.city, state, or federal property, there is generally little problem lgcating the properofficial and obtaining.permission:4.10wever,' on private ptoperty the-problem bkomes more'complex.To discOVer who owns the property might necessitate a trip to the county courthOuse and an:investtgAtion of the plat bo,iks to find the owner. ,Oncethis is done, a -personal Visit with that owner kill btnecessary. 'Allproperty rights should be honored. Therefore, if the owners response.1 negative, another area will.haVe to be used. Students' insuranceshould be chetked sinte fullx inSmred students (either by th4ljr parents .or by the'institution) will increase the chances of obt

Session I .-Introducing Rock Climbing. 21. Session II--Teachin4, Three-Point Rule, 22 or-Session III--Teaching Friction Climbing., 23. Session IV--Teaching'Equipment Maintenance., f. 4. 25 Session V--Teaching The. Becsic Knots. 1. 27 Session VI--Teaching Support Systems And Delaying 32 Session VII--Teachi

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Asset management in Europe is mainly concentrated in six countries where almost 85% of the asset management activity takes place. The United Kingdom is the largest European asset management market, followed by France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. Thepresence of large financial centres can explain the market concentration in these countries. The

The Queen’s Awards for Enterprise are the most prestigious awards for UK business, designed to recognise and encour-age outstanding achievements in the fields of Innovation, International Trade, Sustainable Development and Promoting Opportunity (through social mobility). The Queen’s Awards scheme was instituted by Royal Warrant in 1965 and the first Awards were made in 1966. This year, 220 .

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The eginner [s Guide to PEA 3 Introduction Over the last two decades aid agencies and academics have been on a journey of lesson learning and adaptation in relation to politics.