The Great 1906Northern California EarthquakeLiquefaction on the banks of the Eel River near Port KenyonPhoto by Edna GarrettThe Strongest North Coast Temblorin 150 Years of Written History1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Why North Coast residents should be interestedin the 1906 “San Francisco” EarthquakeThe 1906 earthquakedidn’t just hit SanFrancisco. Major damage extendedfrom Santa Cruz to ArcataCrescent City Eureka Ferndale Theearthquake was feltin Southern Oregon andmost of Nevada It was our strongesthistoric earthquakeSource: USGSSomeday the northern San Andreas fault will ruptureagain, damaging buildings and cutting us off fromthe rest of the state for days or weeks.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
1906 EarthquakeLargest California earthquake in the past 150 years.Humboldt and Del Norte Counties1821San Francisco 12 15 Santa Cruz 7Orange bars show how muchthe fault slipped in feetSource: 1906 slip from the USGS.The fault rupture extended nearly 300 miles —from Santa Cruz to Southern Humboldt County1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
1906 EarthquakePlate Tectonic SettingMendocinotriple junctionThe 1906 earthquake ruptured the transform plate boundarybetween the North American and Pacific plates1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
How big was the 1906 Earthquake?ENERGY RELEASEThe 1906 earthquake was California’slargest historic event. The currentlyaccepted magnitude is 7.8.This earthquake was as big as: 500 Hiroshima bombs Half the eruption of Mt. St. Helens 11 Cape Mendocino earthquakes2004 Indonesian earthquake1906 earthquake1906 earthquake2004 IndonesiaPECA RE92 TU19 UPROINOCNDME1906 earthquakeThe 2004 Indonesian and the1700 Cascadia earthquakeswere over 100 times bigger!1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
How did the fault move?Strike-slip fault The San Andreas fault is astrike-slip fault. The ground on each side of thefault moved horizontally. Largest measured slip was 21feet near Point Reyes.This fence on the Strain farm in Marin Countywas offset 9 feet.Photo by G.K. Gilbert, USGSBefore the 1906 earthquake, most geologists thought allearthquakes involved vertical movement. 1906 demonstrated thatlarge earthquakes could be pure strike slip.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
What if the 1906 Earthquake happened now?Scientists estimate that if the 1906earthquake happened right now: 1,800 to 3,500 people would die 160,000 to 250,000 people would be displaced Would cost at least 150 billion to repairdamaged buildingsIn Humboldt County The area of damagingshaking would be about twice as large as the 1992Cape Mendocino earthquakes, disrupting pipelines,utilities, roads and bridges, and cutting us off fromthe rest of the state for days or weeks.In Del Norte County People would feel theearthquake but there would be little damage.However, roads to the south would be impassableand power could be disrupted.Someday the northern San Andreas fault will produce another greatearthquake. Recurrence estimates are between 200 and 400 years.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
1906 fault rupture was mapped in Shelter CoveAfter the earthquake, geologistsstudied the fault area fromSanta Cruz to HumboldtCounty. F. E. Mathes mappedthe Shelter cove area.ANShelter Cove looking southDashed yellow line is the mapped 1906 fault rupture.Photo by Gary CarverASame area in 1962Mathes’ map from the 1908State Earthquake Investigation ReportPhoto of scarp interpreted as 1906 rupture.From the 1908 State Earthquake Investigation Report1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
What happened in San Francisco?The Great FireMore damage was caused by the fire in San Francisco than the ground shaking.Most of the city’s water supply was disrupted by the earthquake. Dynamitingbuildings to fight the fire caused even more damage.Painting by William Alexander CoulterMany spectators used boats of all sizes to watch the great conflagrationincluding 17 year-old Cecile Clark, an undergraduate at UC Berkeley.Cecile founded Eureka’Eureka’s Clark Museum.Photo by Arnold Genthe/Print by Ansel AdamsView of downtown earthquake and fire aftermath.Photo by Arnold Genthe,Genthe, Print by Ansel Adams.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
What happened in San Francisco?Ground shaking and liquefaction was much stronger in areas ofsoft sediments and artificial fill. AGLiquefaction PotentialGHighModerateLowAPhoto Fairmont HotelEEarthquake Information Bulletin photo, USGSA small pocket of fill on UnionStreet caused the ground to liquefyand fail while nearby areas sufferedlittle damage.CThe not-yet-opened Fairmont Hotel on theFranciscan bedrock of Nob Hill sufferedlittle damage in the earthquake but wasgutted by the ensuing fire.BCDFEBAssociation of Bay Area Governments.DPhoto by G.K. Gilbert, USGSBrannan and 9th Streetnear the boundary of filledground.FPhoto courtesy of City Museum of San FranciscoThe three-story Valencia Hotel onValencia Street, between 18th and 19thStreet, toppled over, killing an estimate200 residents. This section of town wasbuilt on the filled-in Mission Riverdrainage.Photo by G.K. Gilbert, USGSPhoto by G.K. Gilbert, USGSHoward Street (now South VanNess) between 17th and 18thStreet. Many buildings tilted ontheir foundations as the groundliquefied.Photo by G.K. Gilbert, USGSSpread failures on BryantStreet near 8th Street.Cracks caused byliquefaction of filledground on BluxomeStreet,near6thStreet.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Impacts of the 1906 earthquake At least 3,000 people lost their lives Greatest single fire loss in US history 522 city blocks destroyed More than half the population ( 250,000)homelessStanford Campus, Palo Alto 524 million property damages(1906 dollars)Statue of French scientistLouis Agassiz, fallenfrom the arches above.Photo SFMOMAHoward Street, San FranciscoJ. B. Macelwane Archives,Saint LouisUniversity1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ -PhotoTsunamiDisplay2006
What happened elsewhere in the State?Significant damage occurred in communities from Santa Cruz to Humboldt CountyOaklandTomales BayPoint ReyesPhoto by G.K. Gilbert, USGSWater tanktoppled over.Photo by G.K. Gilbert, USGSTrain thrown from railsat Point Reyes Station.Photo by G.K. Gilbert, USGSThe East Bay wasn’t hitnearly as hard but somebrick buildings were badlydamaged.Santa RosaPalo AltoSanta CruzPhoto Courtesy of University of California, BerkeleySanta Rosa may have sufferedthe worst damage - almost all thebuildings in town were badlydamaged and the collapse of theCity Hall (above) was spectacular.Photo by Mendenhall, USGSDamage was particularly severe atthe new Stanford Universitycampus in Palo Alto.Photo by Humphrey, USGSWood house split in half bythe fault rupture.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Eureka(population 10,000) Numerous downedchimneysBroken glassWater sloshed fromtanksMany items knockedfrom shelvesNo major damage tostructuresPostcard circa 1911Eureka Court House (5th & H St.)Built 1900, demolished 1924Photo courtesy of Clarke MuseumStatue of Minerva knocked 45 “.Daly’.Daly’s front were cracked into small fragments in that manner, as I saw when I went down to work at 8 o’o’clock. F Street looked quitewrecked. Daly’Daly’s store especially. The goods were thrown from the shelves there and things thrown all over the floor. Our office had two panes ofglass slightly cracked. It will be a long time before all the plate glass is replaced, for it will have to come from the East. Minerva on the CourtHouse was tipped to nearly 45 degrees so she looks as if she were just ready for a high dive, but the Court House was not otherwise injured atall. They are starting now to put up scaffolding to restore Minerva; it will cost several hundred dollars to do it. The Grand Hotel lost most ofthe plaster from the first story. The Winship school escaped with a broken chimney, some cracked plaster (not very bad) and the upper half ofthe flag pole snapped short off. Nearly all the window glass was broken out of Ohman’Ohman’s old store, giving it an even more dilapidatedappearance than usual ”usual ”Excerpt from letter written April 27, 1906 by Joseph Prince Tracy (1879-1952) to his sister, Edith, then a graduate student at Radcliff College, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Courtesy of the Humboldt Historical Society1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
A San Francisco Earthquake SurvivorAnother centennial wentunnoticed this year - the statue ofPresident McKinley that stands inArcata’s Plaza.Photo courtesy of Ericson CollectionArcata Plaza circa 1907George Zehndner,Courtesy of Humboldt CountyHistorical SocietyGeorge Zehndner was an Arcata pioneer and an admirer ofPresident McKinley. After McKinley’McKinley’s assassination in September1901, he commissioned San Francisco sculptor Haig Patigian tocast a bronze statue of the fallen president for 15,000. The statuehad just been completed when the earthquake occurred. Theearthquake knocked the statue over but fortunately its fall was wasbroken by a plaster model nearby. The structure housing the statueburned to the ground and the statue was presumed melted. A weeklater, Patigian was allowed to return to the area and found a groupof men standing with it. They had rescued it from the buildingbefore the fire consumed the building and left it, hand pointingupwards, in the street. It had taken some smoke damage, but thebronze sculpture was mostly unharmed. It arrived in Eureka onMay 1, 1906 and was officially presented to the City of Arcata onJuly 4, 1906.Photo courtesy of Peter Palmquist CollectionPreparing to install the statue, July 1906Humboldt Historian, Nov. Dec. 19871906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
In Humboldt County,Ferndale suffered thegreatest damagePhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale MuseumCourtesy of Ferndale MuseumHeadline of the Ferndale EnterpriseApril 20, 1906Early morning April 18th on Main Street. DamagedGeneral Mercantile is first building on left. Losses inFerndale were estimated at over 100,000.Photo by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale MuseumPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Peter Palmquist CollectionFerndale house was moved off the foundation and thechimney toppled.Loveland’Loveland’s Store, 455 Main Street. This is the onlyknown interior photo from 1906 in HumboldtCounty. The building suffered little structuraldamage and is currently the Black Smith’Smith’s Shop.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
70% of the Ferndale buildings of 1906are still in the town today!1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Ferndale then and nowThe White Front Store, 394 Main Street(One of only two brick buildings in Ferndale in 1906)“The store of the J. Gollober Co., formerly the Boynton and Hall place of business, was treated as badly, thebricks from the front covering the sidewalk to a depth of several feet. The sides were shaken down to someextent, and the tower in which hung the fire bell was thrown to the ground.”ground.” Ferndale Enterprise, April 20, 1906Photo L. DenglerPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Peter Palmquist CollectionThe White Front Store wasdemolished after the earthquake.The neo-classical Ferndale Bankthat replaced it was built in 1911.Photos by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale Museum1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Ferndale then and nowMilwaukee Saloon, 393 Main StreetBuilt in the EastlakeStick style in 1896, in1906 the building houseda saloon on the groundfloor, a lawyers officeand a house of ill-reputeon the second floor. Thelower floor tilted to thenorth in the earthquakeand all of the downstairswindows were broken.Photo by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale Museum.393 Main Street in 2006,currently Hobart Galleries.The Kinetic Sculpture Racebegan here in 1969.369 Craig StreetThe two-story woodenboarding house sufferedsevere damage to theupper floor, chimney andporch. The upper floorand bay window weresubsequentlyremoved,and the structure today isa modest home.Photo L. DenglerPhoto E. BeltzPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Peter Palmquist Collection.369 Craig Street, 20061906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Ferndale then and nowValley Grocery 1950s339 Main StreetThe General Mercantile (owned by the Russ, Early andWilliams Co.) had been completed only four monthsbefore the earthquake and suffered complete loss ofthe brick parapet and all the glass windows.April 1906Photo Ferndale EnterpriseApril 1992April 25, 1992. Falling bricks crushed two cars.Photo Edna Garrett, Courtesy Peter Palmquist CollectionPhoto by Kevin BaylessThe building was repaired and continued as a commercialestablishment until 1992 when it suffered similar damage in theCape Mendocino earthquake. It was demolished and replacedwith a wood structure.April 2006Photo by L. Dengler1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Ferndale then and nowKnights of Pythian Castle, 607 Main StreetPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of the Ferndale MuseumFerndale’Ferndale’s Pythian Castle was knockedout of kilter by the earth-quake. It wasrepaired and continued to function until1926 when it was torn down for a gasstation.Photo by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Peter Palmquist CollectionPhoto by L. DenglerPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale MuseumToday the Ferndale PizzaCompany occupies the site.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Eel River ValleyPhoto by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Ferndale MuseumLandslide (in box) at Centerville into Oil Creeknear the mouth of the Eel River.Bank failure on the Eel River near Port Kenyondue to liquefaction.The Eel River Valley was hardhit by the 1906 earthquake.Fewer than 2% of chimneys inthe Eel River Valley remainedintact.Watertanksandwindmills were thrown fromfoundations. Liquefaction wasobserved throughout the area.Land along the Salt River slidinto the river and was crackedfor several hundred feet oneach side. At Centerville Beacha half-mile of hillslope slid intothe Pacific.Liquefaction on the banksof the Salt River.Photos by Edna Garrett, Courtesy of Peter Palmquist Collection1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Comparing 1906 and 1992190619921906 was probably strongerThe1992magnitude7.1CapeMendocino earthquake produced strongground shaking throughout southernHumboldt County and caused over 60million in damages. The damage in 1906was very similar. However, the 1906impacts covered a larger area and weremore severe. In 1906 liquefaction wasobserved in Loleta and Fields Landingand spectacular fractures were seen inthe Eel River Valley. In 1992, liquefactionwas more limited in extent and severity.Shaking StrengthIXViolent: Well-built structuresVIIISevere: Brick and masonryVIIVery Strong: Chimneys toppled,VIStrong: Windows broken, cracks,VIVdamaged393 Main St. in Ferndale suffered similar damage in the 1992 and 1906earthquakes. However more of the parapet wall fell and all of thewindows were broken in 1906.19061992Liquefaction was observed along the Mattole River (above left) and locally in the Eel RiverValley in 1992. In 1906 it was much more dramatic and widespread.19061992structures damagedheavy objects displaceditems knocked off shelvesModerate: Felt sharply, a fewitems toppledLight: Felt by most, sleepersawakened.awakened1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Humboldt Bay RegionThe Humboldt Bay region was not hit as hard as the Eel River Valley, but all thecommunities on the Bay experienced damage.Arcata - 30 chimneys were knocked down and the walls at Brizard’Brizard’s store (JacobyStorehouse) spread apart. A vast quantity of lumber on the Arcata wharf fell into theBay.Eureka - Damage similar to Arcata.Many chimneys were knocked downand numerous windows broken.Water towers toppled and watersloshed in the streets.Samoa Peninsula - Two lumberwarehouses on the Samoa Peninsulawere badly damaged and machinerydisplaced.Fields LandingPhoto courtesy of Ferndale Museum, photographer unknownPacific Lumber Company’Company’s wharf at Fields Landing.- The most heavily damaged community on the Bay. PacificLumber Company’Company’s wharf dropped into the Bay with losses estimated at 15,000.Humboldt Bay Entrance- Off the entrance to the Bay, passengers on thesteamer Alliance felt several strong bumps and thought the vessel had struck the bottomor logs in the water.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
AftershocksAll large earthquakes are followed by aftershocks and 1906 was no exception. Numerousaftershocks were reported for two years following the earthquake and many of these werelocated on the North Coast.North Coast Aftershocks of the 1906 EarthquakeIn the six weeks following the1906 earthquake: At least 22 earthquakes were felt inHumboldt County including the largestaftershock anywhere in the state. On April 23, five days after the mainshock, an earthquake of M 6.7 occurredwithin the Gorda basin about 100 mileswest of Eureka. Two additional large events, anM 6.3 earthquake near Shelter Cove on11 August 1909 and a M 6.7 near CapeMendocino on 28 October 1909 are alsoconsidered 1906 8-May21-MayHour5:22 AM12:25 PMnight3:00 AM5:22 AM6:07 AM10:30 AM11:10 PM3:00 AM12:48 AM1:10 AM1:17 AM6:07 AM6:30 AM10:30 AM1:10 PM10:58 PM7:25 PM9:30 PM6:47 AM6:59 AM8:30 PM8:54 PM4:47 AMearly AMDescriptionSlight and short duration, MMI IIISlight and short durationSlight shock in nightslightslightslightslightFelt in EurekaSlight earthquake, duration 3 secondsStopped clocks Trinidad and Cape MendocinoQuite a severe shock, stopped clocks, MMI VII, M 6.7Felt at Cape MendocinoSlight shock, lasted 4 secondsSevere in FerndaleSharp shock, also reported in FerndaleSlight shock, felt in EurekaFelt at Cape MendocinoSlight shock, sufficient violence to shake buildings3 second duration in FerndaleFelt at Blocksburg, may be the same event as belowSudden jolt, 4 seconds duration, felt Eureka and FerndaleFelt at Cape Mendocino, may be the same event as belowSlight at FerndaleVery slight at FerndaleVery slight at FerndaleVery few of these aftershocks were on the San Andreas fault. Most were located offshorein the Gorda basin. When the fault ruptured in 1906, much of the slip was concentrated atthe northern end of the fault and exerted considerable stress on the Gorda plate.1906 Earthquake on the North Coast - Humboldt & Del Norte County Fair EQ - Tsunami Display 2006
Recording the 1906 EarthquakeThe 1906 earthquake was the first to be recorded by manyseismographs all over the world. The instruments of the timewere all based on heavy pendulums that stayed still while theground shook. Two of the very few surviving seismographs ofthis era are still operating a
This earthquake was as big as:This earthquake was as big as: 500 Hiroshima bombs Half the eruption of Mt. St. Helens 11 Cape Mendocino earthquakes 1992 CAPE MENDOCINO RUPTURE 2004 Indonesian earthquake 1906 earthquake 1906 earthquake 2004 Indonesia How big was the 1906 Earthquake?
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions
Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have
Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được
New York, New York Book Indexes to New York Passenger Lists, 1906-1942. T612. 807 rolls. ( rA complete list of rolls has been added.) These alphabetical indexes to passenger manifests are . 8 Hamburg-American Apr. 24, 1906 9 Hamburg-American July 15, 1906 10 Hamburg-American Oct. 20, 1906 11 North German Lloyd Jan. 4, 1906 .
SLT for Automotive Devices -A Thermal Perspective 6 System Level Test Paradigm System Level Testwith high parallelismand thermal management. TestConX 2020 Heating Up -Thermal Session 7 Presentation 4 TestConX Workshop www.testconx.org May 11-13, 2020 SLT for Automotive Devices -A Thermal Perspective 7 Our Approach to Address The Challenges 1. Modular, Massively Parallel 2. Scalable Active .