Articles Classical And Modern Approaches To Public .

3y ago
62 Views
3 Downloads
92.67 KB
8 Pages
Last View : 6d ago
Last Download : 1m ago
Upload by : Javier Atchley
Transcription

ArticlesApproaches to Public AdministrationClassical and Modern Approachesto Public AdministrationPolya Katsamunska*Summary:Public administration has a long historywhich has been going in parallel with thevery notion of government. The classicalapproach to public administration, derivedfrom Weber, Wilson and Taylor, largelydominated most of the 20th century. Infact, Weber’s theory of bureaucracy is themost important theoretical principle of thetraditional model of public administration.This model started to change in the mid 1980sto a flexible, market-based form of publicmanagement because the traditional publicadministration was discredited theoreticallyand practically. All this led not simply to aminor change in management style, but to achange in the role of government in societyand the relation between governmentand citizenry. The introduction of modernmanagerial approach and the adoption ofnew forms of public management meanthe emergence of a new paradigm in thepublic sector. The wave of reforms startedfrom the Anglo-American countries as theywere the first to attach bigger importanceto the role of private sector forms andtechniques in the process of modernizinggovernment, though not all countries adoptedthe whole new public management package.There is another distinctive model ofreform, which is followed by many Europeancountries and requires selective and limiteduse of its elements and instruments.Key words: bureaucracy, ideal typebureaucracy, traditional model of governance,Weberian approach, managerial approach,government modernization, new publicmanagement, Neo-Weberian state.JEL: L32, M38InroductionThe traditional public administrationwas established to run a state in astable and predictable way in a relatively staticenvironment and therefore, public administrationwas not prepared to meet new challengesand was resistant to change. Today it has toadjust and accommodate to a rapidly, at timesunpredictably, changing environments. Over thelast few decades the efforts across the world toconduct substantial reforms in the public sectorwere directed at ensuring good governancein terms of effective, ethical, accountable andtransparent administration. The accumulation ofchanges in public administration over that period*Polya Katsamunska is a Ph.D., associate professor at the Public Administration and Regional Development of UNWE,e-mail: polya katsamunska@yahoo.com74Economic Alternatives, issue 1, 2012

Articlesis really impressive and yet "almost no nationalgovernment would argue that administrationchange has now been completed or that thepublic sector has been put into good workingorder"1The object analyzed in the article is themodel of public administration and the analysisis focused on the classical and modernapproaches to change in public administration.The main reason for the collapse of thetraditional model of administration is that it nolonger worked and was widely perceived asfailing. The emergence of modern managerialapproaches to public administration is regardednot simply as a reform of the traditional publicadministration, but as a transformation of itsparadigm.The aim of the analysis is to explorewhether these is a single possible alternative to the classical approach to publicadministration and whether the traditionalmodel of bureaucracy could be replaced byadopting some sort of market–based mechanism in order to obtain better results frompublic sector organizations.The study has several tasks: 1) topresent the classical approach to publicadministration and to describe thetraditional model of bureaucracy and itskey features and dimensions; 2) to explainthe emergence of the new model of publicsector management in most advancedcountries and many developing ones; 3) toanalyze the modern managerial approach tothe public sector referred to as New PublicManagement; and 4) to outline a particularroute of a modern reform followed by manycontinental European countries.12Classical Approaches to PublicAdministrationIn order to understand the changes andreforms in the system of public administration we need to understand the traditionalmodel of governance, because any attemptat reform is viewed and evaluated againstit. This classical model was thought to bethe best way for organizing the public sector work and undoubtedly worked well fora long time. The traditional model of public administration has been regarded as themost successful theory of public sectormanagement, although it does not have asingle, coherent intellectual foundation. Itstheoretical basis is derived from W. Wilson and Fr. Taylor in the United States, theNorthcote -Trevelyan Report in the UnitedKingdom and M. Weber in Germany. In general, it is characterized as "an administration under the formal control of the politicalleadership, based on a strictly hierarchicalmodel of bureaucracy, staffed by permanent, neutral and anonymous officials, motivated only by the public interest, servingand governing party equally, and not contributing to policy but merely administeringthose policies decided by the politicians"2.This model and its definition has been widely accepted and used in the Western countries and mainly in Continental Europe during the 19th century and the first half of the20th century. The key feature of this modelis that "in the modern governmental systems professional bureaucrats execute thetasks of public administration while separated from the political mechanisms as wellPeter, B.Guy, The Future of Governing, 2nd ed., the University Press of Kansas, 2001, p.Hughes, Owen E., Public Management and Administration: An Introduction, 3rd ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, p. 17.75

Articlesas from the private sphere"3. In contrast tothis model, the earlier, pre-modern modelswere based on personal relationships. Themost important characteristic shared by theearlier systems of administration is that theywere "personal", based on the loyalty to aparticular individual such as a king, a leader, a minister or a party, instead of being"impersonal", based on legality and the loyalty to the organization and the state. Theend of patronage or nepotism in Europe andthe spoil system in the United Stated cameat the end of 19th century, which set the beginning of forming a governmental administration based on merit and political neutrality instead of political dependence and clientelism. The European and the Americanpublic administration have passed throughdifferent historical development, but the Weberian approach become common for themand both stressed the necessity of an impersonal, formally regulated and hierarchical mechanisms.It is well known that the principal focusof Weber’s analysis was not administration,but his main distinctive contribution to thefield of public administration is related tothe analysis of the social and historical context of administration, and more particularly,bureaucracy. Weber did not invent the term"bureaucracy", but identified bureaucracyas the dominant form in a legal-rational society and specified the features of the mostrational form of bureaucracy, which wascalled the "ideal type" bureaucracy. MaxApproaches to Public AdministrationWeber not only gave the characteristicsand criteria for modern bureaucracy, butalso outlined the terms of employment inthe bureaucratic organization4: Officials are personally free and areappointed on the basis of a contract. Officials are appointed, not elected.Weber argues that election modifies thestrictness of hierarchical subordination. Officials are appointed on the basis ofprofessional qualifications. Officials have a fixed money salary andpension rights. The official’s post is his sole or majoroccupation. A career structure exists with promotionbased on merit (though pressure torecognize seniority may also exists). The official is subject to a unified controland disciplinary system in which themeans of compulsion and its exerciseare clearly defined.An important dimension to this classicalmodel of the public administration wasadded by Woodrow Wilson, who introducedthe politics-administration dichotomy. InWilson’s words public administration is "thedetailed and systematic execution of publiclaw" and he believes there should be a strictseparation of politics from administrationbecause administration lies outside theproper sphere of politics and administrativequestions are not political questions. W.Wilson firmly believed that the dichotomybetween politics and administration could3Hoos, J., G.Jenei and L. Vass., Public Administration and Public Management: Approaches and Reforms, In: Public Policyin Central and Eastern Europe: Theories, Methods, Practices, (eds.) M. Potucek, L.T. Leloup, G. Jenei, L. Varadi, NISPAcee,2003, p. 123.4Fry, Brian R., Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, Inc., Chatham,New Jersey, 1989, p. 31.76Economic Alternatives, issue 1, 2012

Articlesnot only eliminate the arbitrariness andcorruption in the administration, but also mayhave wider effects. From a theoretical pointof view, the realization of the dichotomyseems to be very simple, but in reality therehas not been complete and clear separationbetween politics and administration.What distinguishes America from Europeis the transfer of effective managementmethods between the large private andpublic organizations. It became evident that astrong business culture had been developedand attained in America and this importof managerial innovations from the privatesector became a characteristic feature ofthe American public administration. The mostimportant theory, which was first transferredfrom the private organizations, was ScientificManagement. In 1911 Frederick W. Taylorpublished his fundamental work "Principlesand Methods of Scientific Management".At that time there was a search for generaladministrative techniques in the private sectorthat could possibly be used to enhance theefficiency in the operation of the Americangovernment and the scientific managementattracted the support of governmental officials,who believed that its techniques, directlyconcerned with the question of efficiency,could be applied in the public sector.Today it is beyond any doubt that FrederickTaylor is credited with formulating scientificmanagement and his belief was that therewas "one best way of working". According toHughes, "there are two main points to Taylor’stheory: standardizing work, which meant findingthe ‘one best way of working’ and controllingso extensively and intensively as to provide forthe maintenance of standards"5 In short, asFry says "these three components – time andmotion studies, wage incentive systems, andfunctional organization – constitute the core ofTaylor’s scientific management"6 Taylor’s "ideaof one best way", the standardization of work,the systematic control and the hierarchicalorganization fit public administration andexplains why scientific management was themost influential theory in the public sector untilthe 1940 s.’.After the World War II, the basis ofscientific management was questioned,both in theory and in practice, and themost powerful critics came from the NobelPrize winner in economics Herbert Simon,whose work represents a radical departurefrom the classical approach to publicadministration. The classical approachesof Weber and Taylor have been referred toas the public administrative “orthodoxy”7,but when a series of challenges to theclassical approach to public administrationappeared in the 1940s’ “heterodoxy replacedorthodoxy” 8, to quote Dwight Waldo. In otherwords, different theoretical approaches andpractical experiences started to influenceadministrative organizations.5Hughes, Owen E., Public Management and Administration: An Introduction, 3rd ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, p. 27.Fry, Brian R., Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, Inc., Chatham,New Jersey, 1989, p. 60.7Hoos, J., G.Jenei and L. Vass., Public Administration and Public Management: Approaches and Reforms, In: Public Policyin Central and Eastern Europe: Theories, Methods, Practices, (eds.) M. Potucek, L.T. Leloup, G. Jenei, L. Varadi, NISPAcee,2003, p. 127.8Fry, Brian R., Mastering Public Administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo, Chatham House Publishers, Inc., Chatham,New Jersey, 1989, p. 227-228.677

ArticlesThe New Public Administration movementof the late 1960s and early 1970s criticizedthe "old" public administration for its lack ofan explicit ideological framework. The basicprinciples of the New Public Administrationwere participation, decentralization andrepresentative bureaucracy. Both typesof participation as a political processand participation as an organizationalprocess were supported, because politicalparticipation was to be a means of dispersingpower and increasing citizens’ involvementin government, while organizationalparticipation was believed to be a meansfor promoting change and dispersing powerwithin the organization. Decentralization wasintended to increase citizens’ involvement ingovernmental and organizational processes.Representative bureaucracy was meant toproduce client-centered administration andthe representation of clientele interests byadministrators.A new managerial approach in thepublic sector emerged in the 1980s andearly 1990s and it was named New PublicManagement. This new approach lays theemphasis on the economy, efficiency andeffectiveness of government organizations,instruments and programs, and higherquality service delivery. This new modelof public sector management emerged inthe most advanced countries, as well as inmany developing ones, and is regarded bymany authors "not a reform of the traditionalpublic administration, but a transformation ofthe public sector and its relationship withgovernment and society"9Approaches to Public AdministrationModern Managerial Approachesto Public AdministrationThe traditional administrative systempersisted for a long time and was undoubted

The classical approach to public administration, derived from Weber, Wilson and Taylor, largely . Classical and Modern Approaches to Public Administration * Polya Katsamunska is a Ph.D., associate professor at the Public Administration and Regional Development of UNWE, e-mail: polya_katsamunska@yahoo.com. 75 Articles is really impressive and yet "almost no national government would argue .

Related Documents:

Aruna Sairam Vocalist Carnatic Music Asad Ali Khan : Radra Veena . Hindustani Classical Bade Ghulam Ali Khan Vocalist : Hindustani Classical Begum Akhtar . Vocalist : Hindustani Classical Bhimsen Joshi . Vocalist : Hindustani Classical . Famous Indian Classical Musicians and

Dowland, Losy, Dix, Bach, Coste, Scarlatti, Ponce, more. _00315161 Classical Guitar. 10.95 EASY CLASSICAL DUETS A Supplement to A Modern Approach To Classical Guitar Arranged, edited and performed by Charles Duncan This book contains 32 classical guitar duet arrangements.

Except for the above-designated amendment(s), the restated articles set out without change the provisions of the articles being amended. AS 10.06.504(b)(1) The restated articles, together with the above-designated amendment(s), supersede the original articles and all amendments to the original articles. AS 10.06.504(b)(2)

Interest in Executive Function in ChildrenInterest in Executive Function in Children 5 articles in 19855 articles in 1985 14 articles in 199514 articles in 1995 501 articles by 2005501 articles by 2005 –– Bernstein &Bernstein &a

Interest in Executive Function in ChildrenInterest in Executive Function in Children 5 articles in 19855 articles in 1985 14 articles in 199514 articles in 1995 501 articles by 2005501 articles by 2005 -- Bernstein &Bernstein & WaberWaber Executive Function inExecutive Function in Education, 2007Education, 2007 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Approaches to Web Application Development CSCI3110 Department of Computing, ETSU Jeff Roach . Web Application Approaches and Frameworks Scripting (or Programmatic) Approaches Template Approaches Hybrid Approaches Frameworks . Programmatic Approaches The page is generated primarily from code

Modern Approaches to Management *Separated Bureaucracy from Classical School. Lawal (2012) 1. Classical School of Management 2. Organic or Neo-Classical School (Human Relations and Behavioural Theories) 3. System and Contingency School 4. Dynamic Engagement Era * Agreed with Stoner et al. (2004) by Identifying New School (No. 4) Robbins and Coulter (2009) 1. Classical Approach 2. Quantitative .

American Board of Radiology American Board of Surgery American Board of Thoracic Surgery American Board of Urology ABMS and 24 Boards (Consolidated) Cash, Savings and Investments by Board Total Liabilities: Deferred Revenue, Deferre d Compensation and All Other by Board Retirement Plans: Net Assets, Inv Inc and Employer and Employee Contributions by Board ABMS and 24 Boards Board, Related .