AP HUGE – UNIT 8 Political Geography

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AP HUGE – UNIT 8Political Geography

Termannexationboundary, origin (antecedent,subsequent, superimposed,relic)boundary, process (definition,delimitation, demarcation,administration)boundary, ric)buffer nference of Berlin (1884)decolonizationDomino theoryenclave/exclaveEuropean UnionFederalfrontiergeopoliticsDefinitionExample

nder’s TheoryPeace of WestphaliaRatzel’s national organizationterritorial morphology(compact, fragmented,elongated, prorupt, itionExample

Political Geography – Reading Guide – Abrey/EwaldKey Issue 1 and 21. How were states divided prior to the 1800’s2. Describe the evolution of the United Nations?3. Is Antarctica a state? Explain.4. What historical events have lead to a separated Korea? Know the parallel that separates Korea.5. Why has there been a question about Taiwan’s sovereignty?6. Should Western Sahara be controlled by Spain, Morocco, or the Polisario Front? Support your answer.7. What are the 3 reasons for establishing colonies?8. What is the difference in the colonial era and imperialism?9. What is meant by “the sun never set” on the British Empire?10. When did most African colonies gain independence?11. List the remaining colonies and their corresponding controlling power.Key Issue 313. What are the disadvantages of landlocked states? List a few landlocked states.14. What is the difference in a frontier and a boundary?15. List the types of physical boundaries. What type of problems do water boundaries present?16. List the types of cultural boundaries. Why did the “green line” in Cyprus develop?17. What type of country does a unitary government work best with? What type of country does a federal governmentwork best with?18. Explain the 3 types of gerrymandering.

Key Issue 419. Describe the role the Cold War played in the alliances we see today.20. List examples of organizations:Political cooperation –Military cooperation –Economic cooperation –21. What is the main role of the EU? What are some changes the European Parliament has made?22. Define terrorism.23. Outline the terrorist attacks on Americans.24. Answer the Who? What? When? Why? about Al-Qaeda.25. How does Libya support terrorism?26. How does Afghanistan support terrorism?27. How does Iraq support terrorism?28. How does Iran support terrorism?

Shapes of StatesThe shape of a state, determined by its political borders, may be an asset or a challenge to the task of governing acountry and the people within it. For the following terms, please identify at least 2 country examples, and list potential advantages/disadvantages for governing (i.e. What holds countries together? What splits them apart?)(Country examples)VocabCompact: distance from geographic center of area to any point on boundary doesnot vary greatlyElongated: state that is geographicallylong and narrowEnclave: portion of state that is totallysurrounded by another stateExclave: small portion of land is separated from the main stateFragmented: state in many piecesLandlocked: state not having direct access to an oceanMicrostate: state that is extremely smallPerforated: state that totally surroundsanother stateProrupt: state having a portion of territory that is elongatedFrontier: zone where no state exercisespolitical controlAdvantages / Disadvantages

Boundary TypesBoundaries may be a source of friction between competing political entities, or may serve as peaceful remindersof contrasting but accepted differences. The boundaries of a state have much to do with the communication andconflict that may occur with neighboring states. Please find 2 examples of each of the following boundaries.(Country boundary examples)Physical: major physical feature such as a desert, mountain range, and/or waterbody that serves as a means of separationGeometric: straight line that serves as political boundaries, unrelated to physicaland/or cultural differencesFortified: physical barrier constructed to keep people in or out of territoryCultural Political: political boundary that separates different culturesReligious: boundary that separates different religionsLanguage: boundary that separates different language speakersSuper-Imposed: boundary that has been forced upon the inhabitants of an areato solve a problem and/or conflict


THE SHAPES OF STATESDirections1. Label Examples of State Shapes That You See the Map (Use list of terms that may apply below)2. Fill out the chart on state shapesState ShapeCompact stateProrupted stateElongated stateFragmented statePerforated vantagesExamples (At least 4)

Political Geography Article ReviewChoose two from the website and find two of your own related to the topic of Political Geography and complete the chartArticle NameSubject/Main IdeaSummary/Relation to HUGEVocab

Chapter 5: Political Geography- Abrey/Ewald1. What were problems encountered by the new African states after the decolonization wave in the 1960s?2. Explain the development of the European state idea. Include how the idea of territory changed in Europe.3. What are the differences between the terms nation, state, country, and nation-state?4. What distinguishes a multinational state, multi-state nation, and stateless nation? Provide an example of each.5. Explain the role of European colonialism in the diffusion of the idea of states, sovereignty, and the desire for nation states.6. Explain colonialism’s exploitation of economy and its legacy on (how it still affects) the world today.7. Explain the world-systems theory as defined by Wallerstein.8. Outline the two ways to govern a multinational state, using case study examples.9. Explain “ethnocultural devolutionary movements,” using case study examples.10. Explain economic devolutionary forces.11. Why is space a factor in devolution?12. What is the importance of the electoral geography component in analyzing the spatial organization of government?13. Analyze the 4 steps involved in establishing a boundary.14. What are the 4 principal forms of boundary disputes?15. What are the two schools of geopolitics? Explain Ratzel’s theory vs. Mackinder’s theory.16. Explain today’s geopolitical world order of unilateralism.17. Outline the history and goals of supranational (League of Nations, United Nations) and regional supranational organizations(Benelux, EU).18. What challenges does the nation-state face today, especially in the face of supranationalism?

Theories of International Political Organization What is it?OrganicTheory Example from history What is it?HeartlandTheory Example from history What is it?RimlandTheory Example from history

International AlliancesDefine the following terms:Supernational:Supranational:For each of the alliances listed below include the following information:Brief explanation – 1. Why does it exist? What is the full name?2. Is it supernational or supranational?Who is involved?NATO 1 2 3-OPEC 1 2 3-UN 1 2 3-Nafta 1 2 3-EU 1 2 3-

APHUGE – Political Geography Review SheetName1. Define State:2. Define Sovereignty:3. Explain how each of the following demonstrates the problem of defining a state.a. Koreab. China & Taiwanc. Western Sahara4. Trace the development of the state concept.5. Define the following:a. Colony:b. Colonialism:c. Imperialism:6. List three reasons that European states established colonies.a.b.c.7. When did most African and Asian colonies gain independence from Europe?8. Make a generalization about the few remaining colonies.9. What is a boundary?

10. Contrast a frontier and a boundary.11. List the 3 main types of physical boundaries and a problem with each one.a.b.c.12. List and give an example of the three main types of cultural boundaries.a.b.c.13. Draw and describe the following shapes of states and provide an example of each along with advantage and disadvantage.Shape(draw in the boxExample (real ongatedFragmentedPerforatedLandlocked14. Why is there a UN patrolled buffer zone (boundary) in Cyprus?15. Give an example of an ethnicity divided among several states and where do they live?

16. Define unitary state. Give a strength and a weakness of this type of state using France as an example.a. (Define)b. (Strength)c. (Weakness)17. Define federal state. Give a strength and a weakness of this type of state using Poland as an example.a. (Define)b. (Strength)c. (Weakness)18. According to your text, what is the biggest threat to the survival of the “state” concept?19. When was the United Nations (U.N.) created and what was its purpose?20. Describe the purpose of the following regional alliances:a. NATOb. Warsaw Pactc. OASd. OAU21. List two ways the contemporary world’s pattern of global power is different than it has been in the past.a.b.22. What is the European Union and what is its purpose?23. Describe how the former communist countries present a challenge to the European Union.

surrounded by another state Exclave: small portion of land is sepa-rated from the main state Fragmented: state in many pieces Landlocked: state not having direct ac-cess to an ocean Microstate: state that is extremely small Perforated: state that totally surrounds another state Prorupt: state having a portion of terri-tory that is elongated

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