Climate-Smart Agricultutre Training Manual

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CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE T R A I N I N G M A N U A LCLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURETRAINING MANUALA reference manual for agricultural extension agentsA reference manual for agricultural extension agentsTRAINING MANUALISBN 978-92-5-131065-697 8 9 2 5 13 1 0 6 5 6CA2189EN/1/10.18FAOEconomic and Policy Analysis of Climate Change (EPIC)Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA)Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, ULTUREA reference manual for agricultural extension agents

CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURETRAINING MANUALA reference manual for agricultural extension agentsFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsRome, 2018

Required citation:FAO. 2018. Climate-smart agriculture training manual A reference manual for agricultural extensionagents. Rome. 106 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not implythe expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area orof its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specificcompanies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply thatthese have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that arenot mentioned.The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflectthe views or policies of FAO.ISBN 978-92-5-131065-6 FAO, 2018Some rights reserved. This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 IGO licence (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO; igo).Under the terms of this licence, this work may be copied, redistributed and adapted for non-commercialpurposes, provided that the work is appropriately cited. In any use of this work, there should be nosuggestion that FAO endorses any specific organization, products or services. The use of the FAO logois not permitted. If the work is adapted, then it must be licensed under the same or equivalent CreativeCommons license. If a translation of this work is created, it must include the following disclaimer alongwith the required citation: “This translation was not created by the Food and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations (FAO). FAO is not responsible for the content or accuracy of this translation. The original[Language] edition shall be the authoritative edition.Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with theArbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) as at presentin force.Third-party materials. Users wishing to reuse material from this work that is attributed to a third party,such as tables, figures or images, are responsible for determining whether permission is needed for thatreuse and for obtaining permission from the copyright holder. The risk of claims resulting from infringementof any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user.Sales, rights and licensing. FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( and can be purchased through Requests for commercial useshould be submitted via: Queries regarding rights and licensingshould be submitted to: photos clockwise: FAO/Dante Diosina; FAO/Hoang Dinh Nam; FAO/Olivier Asselin.

ContentsINTRODUCTIONviiiix1Module AUnderstanding climate changeSession A1. What is climate change?Session A2. Causes of climate change5615Module BClimate change impacts on agriculture and food securitySession B1. Climate change and agricultureSession B2. Climate change and food security212234Module CClimate-smart agricultureSession C1. Climate-smart agriculture definition and characteristicsSession C2. Gender issues in climate-smart agriculture464759Module DClimate-smart agriculture solutions for your areaSession D1. Local climate-smart practicesSession D2. Barriers and opportunities707181REFERENCES92CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALAcknowledgementsAcronymsiii

CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALExercisesivExercise A.1Exercise A.2Exercise A.3Exercise A.4Exercise A.5Exercise A.6Exercise B.1Exercise B.2Exercise B.3Exercise B.4Exercise B.5Exercise B.6Exercise B.7Exercise B.8Exercise C.1Exercise C.2Exercise C.3Exercise C.4Exercise C.5Exercise C.6Exercise C.7Exercise D.1Exercise D.2Exercise D.3Exercise D.4Exercise D.5Exercise D.6Introduction to the training courseWeather and climateGlobal WarmingChanges in rainfallThe greenhouse effectClimate change in your areaUnderstanding the effects of future climate changeEffects of climate changeThe greenhouse effectComparing countries’ greenhouse gas emissions“Virtual field visits” to observe activities that release greenhouse gasesWhat is food security?What causes food insecurity?Climate change and food securityAdaptation and mitigationClimate-smart agricultureCurrent agricultural practicesAre current practices climate-smart?Making agricultural practices more climate-smartPrioritizing optionsGender and climate change“World café” on climate-smart agricultural practicesOther local climate-smart practicesBarriers and opportunities to adopting climate-smart agricultureRisk managementAction 76767898989909091

TablesTable C7.Table C8.Table C9.Table D1.Table D2.Table D3.Table D4.Table D5.Outline of the training courseExamples of effects of climate change on several aspects of human life and ecosystemsExample of projected climate change effects on crop productionMain sources of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultureGreenhouse gas emission projection by sector (in million tonnes CO2-eq)The four dimensions of food securityThe duration dimension: chronic versus transitory food insecurityTypes of climate-related risks and potential impacts on agricultural producersExamples of how heavy rain affects food security in ZambiaGreenhouse gas emissions by country (including LULUCF)Comparing current agricultural practices and climate-smart agricultureDescription of some sustainable agricultural practicesSample options for adaptation to climate change at farm levelExamples of food security, adaptation and mitigation synergiesExamples of actions to address practical and strategic needsRelative contribution of agricultural practices to climate smart goals, gender impact,and requirements for adoption of the practiceEvaluation criteria: Was a gender-responsive approach used in a climate-smart intervention?Analysing who does what: an exampleEffect of climate change on women and menComparing current farming and conservation agricultureCost barriersProduction barriersCultural barriersWhat an action plan looks like, first 90CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALTable 1.Table B1.Table B2.Table B3.Table BV1.Table B4.Table B5.Table B6.Table BZ1.Table B7.Table C1.Table C2.Table C3.Table C4.Table C5.Table C6.v

FiguresCLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALFigure A1.Figure A2.Figure A3.Figure A4.Figure AZ1.Figure AZ2.Figure AZ3.Figure AM1.Figure AM2.Figure AV1.Figure AV2.Figure AV3.Figure A5.Figure A6.Figure A7.viFigure B1.Figure B2.Figure B3.Figure B4.Figure BZ1.Figure BM1.Figure BV1.Figure BV2.Figure B5.Figure BM2.Figure B6.Figure C1.Figure C2.Figure C4.Figure D1.Climate: Variability around a steady mean7Climate change: Conditions trend and the mean changes7Global land-ocean temperature index 1880–20168Scenarios for temperature and precipitation changes9November–December mean temperature in Zone I10Average temperature and rainfall in Zambia from 1961 1990 and 1991 201510Changes in the onset of the rainy season in Zambia from 2000 to 201111Comparison of average temperature and rainfall in Malawi from 1961–1990 and 1991–2015 12Historical and projected rainfall patterns in Malawi12Changes in the average temperature and rainfall in Viet Nam during the past 50 years13Changes in average annual temperature in northern Viet Nam, 1961–201114Changes in average annual rainfall in northern Viet Nam, 1961–201114The greenhouse effect15Global greenhouse gas emissions by economic sector17Average monthly temperature and rainfall for Viet Nam, 1901–1930, 1931–1960,1961–1990, 1991–201519How climate change affects agriculture24How does climate change a ffect livestock keepers and production?25Share of agricultural emissions in CO2 equivalent in 2014, by source and at global level27Greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed ecosystems29National GHG emissions in Zambia by sector30National GHG emissions in Malawi by sector31Greenhouse gas emissions in Viet Nam by sector32Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sectors in Viet Nam33The four dimensions of food security36Numbers of people affected by droughts in Malawi, 1987–200738From climate change to food security: transmission mechanism39The three objectives of climate-smart agriculture47Change in the number of people at risk of hunger in 2050 with improvedsustainable agricultural technologies50The intersection of climate change and gender inequality with food security59A dip in output in the first few years may deter agricultural producersfrom adopting some climate-smart techniques83

BoxesExample of climate variability - El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)Gender-differentiated impacts of climateRemoving carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through sequestrationWhat is food security?Understanding vulnerability to climate changeDifferent ways to achieve food securityAgro-ecological principlesWhat is resilience?Conducting a gender analysis for climate-smart agriculture62628344148505461CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALBox A1.Box B1.Box B2.Box B3.Box B4.Box C1.Box C2.Box C3.Box C4.vii

AcknowledgementsThis training manual on climate-smart agriculture was prepared by FAO as one of the outputs of the project“Climate-Smart Agriculture: Capturing the synergies between mitigation, adaptation and food security”, foundedby the European Commission. The project has developed and tested climate-smart agriculture methodology inthree countries Zambia, Malawi and Viet Nam over the period 2012 to 2015. Most of the practices and casestudies contained in this manual are taken from training materials developed by FAO, the partner organizations andconsultants during the implementation of the project and have been tested in training workshops with farmers inthe three countries.CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALThe development of the manual has been coordinated by Alessandro Spairani under the overall guidance ofAda Ignaciuk in the Agricultural Economics Development Division (ESA). A number of FAO experts provided valuablecontributions, including the current and former members of the Economics and Policy Innovations for ClimateSmart Agriculture (EPIC) team in ESA: Romina Cavatassi who initiated this project, Tessa Adamson, Valentina Conti,Uwe Grewer, Nicholas Sitko, Adriana Paolantonio and experts from different FAO divisions: Alexandre Meybeck(Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department); Anne Mottet, Felix Teillard (Animal Production and HealthDivision); Patrick Kalas (Capacity Development Unit); Josef Kienzle, Rémi Cluset and Sandra Corsi (Plant Productionand Protection Division); Ilaria Sisto and Szilvia Lehel (Social Policies and Rural Institutions Division); Misael Kokwe,(FAO Zambia); Florence Rolle and George Phiri (FAO Malawi); Beate Scherf (Sustainable Agriculture Programme);Delgermaa Chuluunbaatar (Research and Extension Unit); Rima Al-Azar, Marwar Ladki, Mirella Salvatore, FedericaMatteoli, Sibyl Nelson and Bianca Dendena (Climate and Environment Division).viiiThe authors would also like to acknowledge the contribution of those who drafted the training manuals in Zambia,Malawi and Viet Nam: Angel Elias Daka, Lydia Ndulu and Chabala Mutuna (NIRAS Consultants) and MortonMwanza and Reynolds Shula (Ministry of Agriculture) of Zambia; John Kazembe and Judith Kamoto (consultants)of Malawi; and Phạm Thị Sến (Northern Mountainous Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute), Mai Văn Trịnh(Agricultural Environment Institute), Trần Thế Tưởng (Department of Crop Production), Bùi Mỹ Binh (InternationalCooperation Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) of Viet Nam. Further editorial support hasbeen provided by Paul Mundy, Nikola Stalevski and Catherine McMullen, while Anastasia Clafferly has elaboratedgraphic design and layout.

AEZAgro-Ecological ZoneAFOLUAgriculture, Forestry and Other Land UseCH4MethaneCO2Carbon dioxideCSAClimate-smart agricultureENSOEl Niño Southern OscillationFAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the UNF-gasesFluorinated gasesGHGGreenhouse gasGWPGlobal Warming PotentialIMHENViet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate ChangeIPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeLULUCFLand Use, Land-Use Change and ForestryMONREMinistry of Natural Resources and Environment (Vietnam)N2ONitrous oxideNO2Nitrogen dioxideUNUnited NationsUNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeWMOWorld Meteorological OrganizationCLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALAcronymsix

IntroductionIncrease agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner to meet the growing global demand, while at the sametime adapt to a changing climate and reduce the GHG released in the atmosphere are three interlinked challengesthat the agricultural sectors need to overcome in the next decades. To meet these challenges, agricultural productionand food systems need to undergo a profound transformation. Such a transformation will involve a variety ofstakeholders along the agricultural supply chains and at policy levels. Food producers will have to adapt theirfarming system techniques in the context of new climate conditions, and increasingly limited natural resources,while at the same time reducing GHG emissions. For this reason, in 2010 FAO introduced the concept of climatesmart agriculture at The Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change. Climate-smartagriculture is an approach designed to link agricultural production and food security to climate change adaptationand mitigation, in order to guide the management of agriculture and food systems under climate change at multiplescales: from the farming household to landscape, national and global levels.The promotion of climate-smart agricultural activities and outcomes requires integrating a wide range of concepts,information and practices from different disciplines and stakeholders. This training manual is specifically designed toprovide agricultural extension agents, who are at the front line of agricultural system changes, with a broad rangeof information and strategies to achieve climate-smart outcomes. By bringing together information on climatescience and agricultural science – as well as social, economic and policy analysis – with knowledge keyed to localpractices, this manual seeks to increase extension agents’ awareness and understanding of climate change and therelevance of the climate-smart approach, and to support them in developing training programmes on climate-smartagriculture in their own countries and communities.CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUALThe effects of climate change will vary by region, country and location and will affect people differently dependingon their vulnerability and capacity to adapt. Some areas are expected to become drier and more drought-prone,while others will witness more intense rains or altered rainfall patterns. Increasing temperatures will change thelength of the growing seasons and affect yield in some areas, while at the same time modify the distributionof fish populations in rivers and oceans. This added variability changes the conditions in which agriculture ispracticed and requires context and site-specific strategies and responses. At the same time, across the globe,climate change will increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including floods, droughtsand heatwaves. These events threaten food production and the livelihoods of food producers, particularly thosewith the weakest adaptation capacity who are too often located in areas exposed to the most severe changes.Moreover, for agricultural systems to sustainably contend with climate change, their contribution to greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions must also be addressed. In fact, agriculture, and associated deforestation, produces an estimated24 percent of total global GHG emissions (IPCC, 2014a).INTRODUCTIONPopulation growth, rapid urbanization, and dietary changes are placing tremendous pressure on food systems,particularly in developing countries. Based on current income, population and consumption trends, the Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that, by 2050, some 50 percent more food will beneeded to satisfy the extra demand compared to 2013 (Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012). The challenges posedby rapid growth in food demand are intensified by the effects of climate change on agricultural systems, includingcrops, livestock, forestry and fisheries.1

PURPOSE OF THIS MANUALThis manual is intended for agricultural extension agents and others interested in developing training courses onclimate-smart agriculture, which is often abbreviated to CSA.Specifically, this manual intends to answer the following questions: What is climate change and what are its causes? How will climate change affect agriculture? What can be done to support agricultural producers, both male and female, to adjust to new conditions? What are practical solutions that agricultural producers and others can put into practice? What types of changes will other stakeholders need to make in order to introduce climate-smart agriculture? How does a trainer structure a participatory capacity-development process? How can climate change can be effectively communicated to food producers?However, it should be noted that agricultural production varies widely from place to place, and climate changeaffects each area and each farm in a different way. Climate-smart agricultural approaches are specific to site andcontext and there is no one solution, or even one set of solutions, that fits all situations. Nonetheless, we candefine some general principles to follow, and we can give examples that readers could adapt to suit their particularcircumstances.INTRODUCTIONOUTLINE OF THE COURSEThis manual is designed for a four-day training course on climate-smart agriculture that would take the learnerfrom the basics of climate science to the impacts of climate change and the linkages among climate, agricultureand food security. It contains four modules, each addressing a particular aspect and consisting of several sessionsthat are held either in plenary, as one group, or in smaller work groups (Table 1). The content and structure of thismanual has been developed and tested through fieldwork involving extension agents and agricultural producers inZambia, Malawi and Viet Nam.Table 1. Outline of the training courseModule A: Understanding climate changeCLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUAL1. What is climate change?2. What causes climate change?2Helps you understand what climate change is, what causesit, what the effects are, and what you can do about it.Module B: Climate change impacts on agriculture and food security1. What are the effects of climate changeon agriculture and how does agriculturecontribute to climate change?2. The link between climate change andfood securityFocuses on how climate change is likely to affect agriculture:its

CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE TRAINING MANUAL iv Exercises Exercise A.1 Introduction to the training course 18 Exercise A.2 Weather and climate 18 Exercise A.3 Global Warming 18 Exercise A.4 Changes in rainfall 18 Exercise A.5 The greenhouse effect 19 Exercise A.6 Climate change in your area 19 Exercise B.1 Understanding the effects of future climate change 43

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