Restoring Tallgrass Oak Woodlands In Southern Ontario

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Restoring Tallgrass Oak Woodlands in Southern OntarioTallgrass Ontario

Restoring Tallgrass Oak Woodlands in Southern OntarioPrinciple Author:Graham BuckPublisher:Tallgrass OntarioPO Box 21034 RPO Wonderland SLondon, ON N6K 0C7Phone: 519 674 9980Email: info@tallgrassontario.orgWebsite: of this report can be downloaded at our website.AcknowledgementsTallgrass Ontario would like to thank the Brant Resource Stewardship Network, NationalWild Turkey Federation Canada for their financial support of this guide. Also, those whocontributed photographs and figures including Graham Buck, Donald Kirk, Larry Lamb,Ministry of Natural Resources, Jessica Linton, Gene Ott, Karen Lee, National Wild TurkeyFederation, USDA and USDA Forest Service and Island Press Washington D.C. Tallgrass Ontario2

Table of Contents1.0 Introduction2.0 The Prairie – Savanna – Woodland - Forest Continuum3.0 Plants and Animals of Oak Woodlands3.1 Plants3.2 Animals4.0 Natural Disturbance and Stress4.1 Fire4.2 Drought: Topography, Soils and Climate4.3 Grazing Wildlife5.0 New Threats to Oak Woodlands5.1 Fire Suppression and the spread of fire-intolerant plants5.2 Inappropriate Tree Planting5.3 Non-native Plants5.4 Non-native Animals Gypsy Moth6.0 Restoring Oak Woodlands6.1 Recognizing Oak Woodlands6.2 Removal of Non-native Plants6.3 Allow Natural Regeneration or Introduce Native Seeds6.4 Introduce Prescribed Burns6.5 Tree Thinning6.6 Shrub Thinning7.0 Creating New Oak Woodland Habitat7.1 Conversion of Evergreen Plantations7.2 Conversion of Oak HedgerowsList of TablesTable 1.Similarities and differences between Tallgrass Prairie, Oak Savanna, OakWoodland and ForestTable 2.Conservative Oak Woodland Plants in Southern OntarioTable 3.Non-conservative Oak Woodland Plants of Southern OntarioTable 4.Animals of Oak Woodlands of Southern OntarioList of AppendicesASummary of Control Methods for Common Invasive SpeciesBChemical Treatment Methods for Vegetation ControlCMechanical Treatment Methods for Vegetation Control3

1.0 Introduction“Oak trees once grew as lone sentinels out on the prairie. They also grew in open oaksavannas, sun dappled oak woodlands and shady oak forests. These wooded communitieschanged with time and space and they blended into each other”. Jerry Sullivan. ChicagoWilderness: An Atlas of BiodiversityPrior to 1800 the southern Ontario landscape was a rich mosaic of natural habitats meadows,alvars, tallgrass prairies, oak savannas, oak woodlands, open and closed forests, swamps,marshes, bogs and fens. The majesty of these ecosystems has been described and documentedby early settlers and land surveyors. The fact that southern Ontario contained ecosystems otherthan forest and wetland is new to a lot of people.European settlement resulted in profound changes to the southern Ontario landscape as thenatural vegetation was cleared for agriculture and urban development. The loss of natural firecycles and the introduction of non-native plants and animals have further jeopardized theremaining habitats. However, there is a growing awareness of the environmental damage andloss of species that has resulted from such extensive habitat conversion.Recently, much effort has been paid to restoring natural habitats, especially tallgrass prairie, oaksavanna, wetland and forest. However, little emphasis has been put on the restoration of lesswell-known habitats such as the fire-dependent oak woodland. This guide focuses attentionon oak woodland or, more precisely, oak-pine-hickory woodland. This habitat type has becomeincreasingly rare in southern Ontario because of the loss of fire, the introduction of non-nativeplants, inappropriate tree planting and other activities. Restoring it takes knowledge and time.The following chapters describe oak woodlands, the natural disturbances that shape it, the threatsto its survival, the reasons for restoring and creating it, the steps to recovering it. The informationin this guide will be useful to people from a broad suite of interests and backgrounds includingforestry, ecology, hunting, wildlife appreciation and environmental education.Figure 1: Oak Woodland Prescribed BurnPhoto: Larry Lamb4

2.0 The Prairie – Savanna – Woodland – Forest ContinuumSouthern Ontario is situated between two very different biomes, prairie to the west (the GreatPlains) and mixed deciduous-coniferous forest to the east. Because habitats “transition” fromone to another, southern Ontario contains both of these habitat types and a wide range of habitatsthat are in between these extremes.Across North America, the transition from short grasslands to tall forests is related largely tomoisture; precipitation increases and the frequency of drought decreases as one travels fromwest to east. This west-east climate pattern also mirrors a fire regime gradient that was asignificant force in the creation of specific habitats and associated plants and animals. In thewest, fast fires frequently raced through the dry grasslands, preventing excessive fuel buildupand suppressing fire-intolerant trees and shrubs.Moving eastward, fires occurred lessfrequently but could be more catastrophic, simultaneously terminating and initiating long-livedspecies. Other factors that shaped the vegetation included topography, soil type and wildlife,especially grazers (e.g., bison).Figure 2: Oak Woodlands and savanna (in background) often occurred in conjunctionwith tallgrass prairie (in foreground). Photo Larry LambTo understand oak woodlands, it is important to understand the habitat continuum into which itfits. The prairie – savanna – woodland – forest continuum is essentially a transition fromsunny to shady, dry to moist, fire-dependent to fire-intolerant. Oak woodland often occurredin conjunction with oak savanna and tallgrass prairie. Table 1 summarizes the similarities anddifferences between these ecosystems.5

Table 1.Similarities and differences between Tallgrass Prairie, Oak Savanna, OakWoodland and ForestTallgrass PrairieOak SavannaOak WoodlandForestCanopyClosure0 - 24%25 - 35%36 - 60% 60%FireFrequenthigh intensityFrequent low intensity orinfrequent high intensityFrequent, lowintensityUsually infrequent(forest-type specific)Layers- Ground- Tree canopy- Ground- Tree canopy- Shrub (patchy)- Ground- Tree canopy- Tree sub-canopy- Shrub- GroundDominantSpecies- Tall grasses such asBig Bluestem- Numerouswildflowers, such asButterfly-weed- Oaks with hickory,poplar, pine- Prairie grasses andwildflowers, such assunflowers- Oaks with hickory,poplar, pine- Savanna and openforest grasses, sedgesand wildflowers- Sugar Maple- American Beech- AshSpring wildflowers, suchas TrilliumsFigure 3: Tallgrass prairie inbloom. Photo Larry LambTallgrass prairie is a fire-dependent grassland plantcommunity with only 0 - 24% tree canopy closure. Thisopen canopy is created by frequent (every 1 - 3 years)and intense fires that kill fire-intolerant trees and shrubsand cause fire-tolerant trees and shrubs to remain small.As the name suggests the community contains grassesthat grow 0.5 – 3.0 meters tall including Big Bluestem,Little Bluestem, Indian Grass and Switch Grass. A richassortment of wildflowers is found including ButterflyMilkweed, Showy Tick-trefoil, Round-headed Bushclover and Flowering Spurge. Although a few speciesof grasses make up 50 - 75% of the plants, sometimesover 100 species of wildflowers can be found in singlepatch of tallgrass prairie. This rich assortment of plantssustains numerous types of invertebrates (e.g.,leafhoppers, grasshopper, crickets, katydids, spiders,beetles, ants, bees, and wasps), birds (e.g., Henslow’sSparrow, Bobolink, and Eastern Meadowlark), reptilesand amphibians and mammals.Prairies contain long-lived, fire-adapted plants, many ofwhich have extensive root system that reach as deep as five meters into the soil. About 60%of the plant biomass is below ground and this, in turn, sustains a diverse ecosystem of soilinvertebrates. In contrast, meadows, which look somewhat similar, are made up of short-lived,relatively shallow-rooted plants such as goldenrod and asters. Unlike prairie meadow is not afire-dependent climax community; but is an early succession ecosystem following a catastrophicevent, such as forest fire, agriculture or prolonged flooding (ex. Beaver meadow).6

Oak savanna is a fire-dependent grassland ecosystem that lies at the transition between tallgrassprairie and oak woodland. The canopy closure is 25 - 35% and the trees consist primarily ofspecies of oak with smaller numbers of other trees such as poplar, hickory and pine. The treesare widely-spaced, allowing sunlight to reach the ground and support a nearly continuouscoverage of native grasses and wildflowers with some shrubs. These forbs (flowers) andgraminoids (grasses, sedges, rushes) are made up of tallgrass prairie and oak woodlandspecies, with a few oak savanna-obligate species (e.g., Purple Milkweed). There is no subcanopy layer of trees and the shrub layer is typically reduced or absent. The canopy openingsare maintained by frequent, low-intensity fires or infrequent high-intensity fires that reduce thenumber of trees and shrubs. Also, oak savannas tend to be situated on dry soils or flooded soilsthat dry out by summer, because of limits to tree and shrub growth.Figure 4: Oak Savanna. Photo: Graham BuckFigure 5: Oak Woodland has an opencanopy, which creates dappled shade.Photo: Graham BuckOak woodland is a fire-dependent plant communitythat occurs at the interface between oak savannaand forest and typically contains elements of both.The canopy closure is 36 - 60%. Typically, in oakwoodland the dominant trees are species of oak butother trees, namely hickory, poplar, chestnut andpine are important components too. There is not asub-canopy of trees and the shrub layer can beabsent or include scattered thickets of AmericanHazel, Gray Dogwood and Chokecherry. Thedappled sun and shade supports a rich undergrowthof sedges, ferns and wildflowers that bloom fromspring to fall. The o a k s h a v e m a n y s i d ebranches to reach7

sunlight on all sides. A list of oak woodland plants is found in Table 2 in the next chapter. Oakwoodlands support an abundance of insects that, in turn, support many insect-eating birds suchas the Great Crested Flycatcher, Wild Turkey, Eastern Bluebird, Red-headed Woodpecker andNorthern Bobwhite.Forest is defined as a plant community with more than 60% canopy closure and typically oneor m o r e s ub -canopy l ayer s o f s h a d e -tolerant hardwood trees.Most s o u t h e r nOntar io deciduous forests are made up of fire-intolerant species (e.g., Sugar Maple, Ash,American Beech). However, some forest types such as oak-hickory-pine are fire-dependent,although the fires are infrequent and low intensity. Forest trees tend to have tall, straighttrunks with little side branching as they reach upward, not outward, towards the sun. Figure1illustrates the differences in form and tree density of oak savanna, oak woodland and forest.Oak Savanna, Oak Woodland and Oak Forest Sketches (Source: Island Press, Washington, DC)Figure 6: Oak Savanna. Sunny grassland with scattered trees, mostly oaks. Trees havemany side branches.Figure 7: Oak Woodland. Intermediate between oak savanna and forest. Characteristicthick turf of sedges, grasses and flowers throughout the growing season. Lack of subcanopy and many trees have spreading lower limbs.Oak Woodland. Intermediate between oak savanna and forest. Characteristic thick turf of sedges (manyPennsylvania Sedge) grasses and flowers throughout the growing season. Lack of sub-canopy and manytrees have spreading lower limbs.8

Figure 8: Forest. Distinct sub-canopy and canopy trees, tall trunks and without lowerlimbs Shade tolerant species in understory.3.0 Plants and Animals of Oak Woodlands3.1 PlantsIn southern Ontario oak woodland provides important habitat for about 142 species of plants.Table 2 lists 84 “obligate” or “conservative” oak woodland species, meaning plants that areusually only found in oak woodlands and no other habitat type. Table 3 lists 58 “nonobligate” or “non-conservative” oak woodland plants, meaning plants that are usually found inoak woodlands but can also be found in open forests. Together, these tables show thediversity and type of plants that rely on oak woodland habitats for their survival.Some of the colourful flowers that can be found in oak woodlands include Wood Anemone, TallBellflower, Woodland Sunflower, Wood Lily, Mayapple and Early Buttercup. Grasses andsedges make up an important component of the ground layer as well and include species suchas Hairy Wood Brome Grass and Nebraska Sedge. The shrub and vine layer can containaromatic and appealing species such as Summer Grape, American Plum, Sassafras andFragrant Sumac. Figure 2 illustrates examples of several oak woodland plants.While there are no conservative oak woodland trees, the most common trees found in thishabitat are Hickories (Pignut, Shagbark or Shellbark), Aspens, American Chestnut, WhitePine, Oaks (usually Red, Black, Hills, White and Bur and occasionally Swamp White,Chinquapin and Pin). Trees are not usually as site-specific as flowers and grasses.Of the conservative and non-conservative plants, approximately 30% are considered rare inOntario or Canada. Downy False-foxglove, Yellow Star Grass, American Columbo, BirdsfootViolet and Rue Anemone are examples of flowering plants that are at-risk in Ontario becauseof the rarity of good quality oak woodland habitat. Recovery of these species depends on therestoration of oak savanna and woodland habitats.9

Pictures clockwise from top left: Smooth False Foxglove, Yellow Stargrass, Birdsfoot Violet, Poke Milkweed,Hairy Bushclover, Seneca Snakeroot, Wood Lily, Woodland Sunflower New Jersey Tea (white flowers) withleaves of Summer Grape, Yellow Pimpernel. Photos: Graham Buck, accept Birdsfoot Violet- Larry LambFigure 9: Conservative oak woodland plants10

Table 2. Conservative Oak Woodland Plants of Southern Ontario (rare species in bold)Common NameScientific NameCommon NameScientific NameYellow Giant HyssopAgastache nepetoidesWild Blue LupineLupinus perennisWood AnemoneAnemone quinquefoliaFour-flowered LoosestrifeLysimachia quadrifloraRue AnemoneAnemonella thalictroidesWhorled LoosestrifeLysimachia quadrifoliaSicklepodArabis canadensisEarly Wood LousewortPedicularis canadensisPoke MilkweedAsclepias exaltataRacemed MilkwortPolygala polygamaFour-leaved MilkweedAsclepias quadrifoliaSeneca MilkwortPolygala senegaYellow False-foxgloveFern-leaf Yellow FalsefoxgloveAureolaria flavaWhorled MilkwortPolygala verticillataAureolaria pediculariaGiant Solomon’s SealPolygonatum biflorumFLOWERING PLANTSDowny False-foxgloveAureolaria virginicaHoary Mountain MintPycnanthemum incanumYellow False IndigoBaptisia tinctoriaEarly ButtercupRanunculus fascicularisBearded ShorthuskBrachyelytrum erectumHispid ButtercupRanunculus hispidusWild HyacinthCamassia scilloidesWhite GoldenrodSolidago bicolorTall BellflowerCampanula americanaHairy GoldenrodSolidago hispidaStandley GoosefootChenopodium standleyanumElm-leaf GoldenrodSolidago ulmifoliaSpotted WintergreenHairy Small-leaved TicktrefoilChimaphila maculataShort-styled SanicleSanicula canadensisDesmodium ciliareYellow PimpernellTaenidia integerrimaToothed Tick-trefoilDesmodium cuspidatumYellowleaf Tinker’s-weedTriosteum angustifoliumMaryland Tick-trefoilDesmodium marilandicumPerfoliate Tinker’s-weedTriosteum perfoliatumBare-stemmed Tick-trefoilCulver’s-rootVeronicastrum virginicumNarrow-leaf Tick-trefoilDesmodium nudiflorumDesmodium paniculatumvar. paniculatumWood-vetchVicia carolinianaProstrate Tick-trefoilDesmodium rotundifoliumPalmate-leaved VioletViola palmataAmerican ColumboFrasera caroliniensisBird’s-foot VioletViola pedataNorthern BedstrawGalium borealeSHRUBS AND VINESWild LicoriceGalium circaezansSummer GrapeVitis aestivalisShining BedstrawGalium concinnumNew Jersey TeaCeanothus americanusHairy BedstrawGalium pilosumDowny ArrowwoodViburnum rafinesquianumThin-leaved SunflowerHelianthus decapetalusFragrant SumacRhus aromaticaWoodland SunflowerHelianthus divaricatusGRASSES, SEDGES, RUSHESPale-leaf SunflowerHelianthus strumosusBroad-glumed BromeBromus latiglumisRock-geraniumHeuchera americanaHairy Wood Brome GrassBromus pubescensRattlesnake HawkweedHieracium scabrumHirsute SedgeCarex hirsutellaRattlesnake HawkweedHieracium venosumNebraska SedgeCarex jamesiiEastern Yellow Star-grassHypoxis hirsutaMuhlenberg SedgeCarex muhlenbergiiTwo-flowered CynthiaKrigia bifloraCliff MuhlyMuhlenbergia soboliferaViolet Bush-CloverLespedeza frutescensMuhlyMuhlenbergia sylvaticaHairy Bush-cloverLespedeza hirtaSlender MuhlyMuhlenbergia tenuifloraWand Bush-cloverLespedeza intermediaBlack Oat-grassPiptochaetium avenaceumTrailing Bush-cloverLespedeza procumbensWoodland BluegrassPoa sylvestrisSlender Bush-cloverLespedeza virginicaPrairie WedgegrassSphenopholis obtusataPale Vetchling PeavineLathyrus ochroleucusFew-flowered Club-rushTrichophorum planifoliumSmooth Veiny PeavineLathyrus venosusWood LilyLilium philadelphicum11

Table 3. Non-conservative Oak Woodland Plants of Southern Ontario (rare species in bold)Common NameScientific NameFLOWERING PLANTSCommon NameScientific NameTREES, SHRUBS, VINESSoft GrooveburAgrimonia pubescensSpreading DogbaneAmerican Hog-peanutRoundlobed HepaticaVirginia AnemoneAmphicarpaea bracteataAnemone americanaAnemone virginianaStiff DogwoodAmerican HazelnutAmerican PlumApocynum androsaemifoliumCornus foemina ssp.racemosaCorylus americanaPrunus americanaPussy-toesWild ColumbineAntennaria parleniiAquilegia canadensisSmooth RoseCarolina RoseRosa blandaRosa carolinaTower-mustardArabis glabraClimbing Prairie RoseRosa setigeraSmooth Rock-cressArabis laevigataSassafrasSassafras albidumHeart-leaf AsterArrow-leaved AsterCanada HonewortLarge Tick-trefoilMaple-leaf ViburnumViburnum acerifoliumGRASSES, SEDGESPubescent SedgeCarex hirtifoliaNarrow-leaf Tick-trefoilNodding FescueAster cordifoliusAster urophyllusCryptotaenia canadensisDesmodium glutinosumDesmodium paniculatum var.dilleniiFestuca subverticillataHitchcock’s SedgePennsylvania SedgeCarex hitchcockianaCarex pensylvanicaSweet-scent BedstrawWild Crane’s-billGalium triflorumGeranium maculatumRosy SedgeLongbeak SedgeCarex roseaCarex sprengeliiCommon St. John’s-wortTall Blue LettuceHypericum punctatumLactuca biennisBottlebrush GrassVirginia Wild RyeElymus hystrixElymus virginicusCanada LettuceLactuca canadensisWoodland LettuceLactuca floridanaPurple TwaybladeLiparis liliifoliaFERNS, ETC.Wild-lily-of-the-ValleyStarflower FalseSolomon’s SealMaianthemum racemosumBulbostylisBulbostylis capillarisMaianthemum stellatumCutleaf Grape-fernBotrychium dissectumLopseedPhryma leptostachyaRattlesnake FernBotrychium virginianumMay ApplePodophyllum peltatumBraken FernPteridium aquilinumOld-field CinquefoilPotentilla simplexBloodrootSanguinaria canadensisVirginia SaxifrageSaxifraga virginiensisUpright GreenbriarSmilax ecirrhataIllinois GreenbriarSmilax illinoensisBluestem GoldenrodSolidago caesiaSmooth GoldenrodSolidago giganteaEarly GoldenrodSolidago junceaTrailing Wild BeanStrophostyles helvulaEarly MeadowrueThalictrum dioicumDowny Yellow VioletViola pubescensWoolly Blue VioletViola sororiaBarren StrawberryWaldsteinia fragarioides12

3.2 AnimalsThe large diversity of plants in oak woodlands supports a large diversity of animal species. Table4 lists 62 animal species that rely to some degree on oak woodlands including 22 speciesof insects, 8 species of reptiles and amphibians, 17 species of birds and 15 species of mammals.Some of the more common species include Silver Spotted Skipper, Brown Snake, Rose-breastedGrosbeak, and Red Fox.The availability of seeds and insects draws a diversity ofbird life. Game birds such as Northern Bobwhite, WildTurkey and Ruffed Grouse thrive in oak woodland habitatsbecause of the availability of their choice food. Themoderately dense understory vegetation (grasses andtrees), provides cover and nesting sites. For groundnesting birds, the tall grasses conceal the nest but at thesame time are not so dense as to prevent the birds fromsurveying their surroundings. The spreading limbs of thelarge open-grown oaks are well suited as roosting sitesfor Wild Turkey.Figure 10: Wild TurkeyPhoto Karen LeeSome 21 of the 62 animal species are designated ‘at risk’primarily due to the loss of their preferred habitat – oakwoodlands. Some oak woodland wildlife species can use similar habitats such as loggedforests and forest edges where extra sunlight filters through.Some oak woodland songbirds have declined due to a) loss of habitat and nesting sites, b)decline of flying insects, their principal food source, and c) increased competition andpredation by starlings, feral cats and raccoons. Examples of songbirds that have sufferedpopulation declines include Cerulean Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Whip-poor-will and Redheaded Woodpecker.Four species of reptiles found inoak woodlands ecosystems areconsidered rare: Gray (Black) RatSnake, Eastern Hog-nosed Snake,Blue Racer and Five-lined Skink.Because reptiles are cold-blooded,many prefer oak savannas, oakwoodlands and open forestsbecause the mixture of sun and shadeallows them to regulate their bodytemperature. Woodland Vole isanother example of a rare animal thatuses oak woodlands.Figure 11: Gray Ratsnake. Photo Ministry ofNatural ResourcesAlmost certainly, invertebrates made up the largest component of biodiversity in oak woodlands,yet little is known about their habitats, natural assemblages, or current status. Manyinvertebrates feed exclusively on a few selected plant species, so as their host plants13

dwindle, so do they. It is likely that many invertebrate species of oak ecosystems were lost orare now very rare, such as the Mottled Duskywing which feeds on New Jersey Tea. Ontariohas recently lost three oak woodland-dependent butterfly species: the Karner Blue, FrostedElfin and Regal Fritillary. The Karner Blue and Frosted Elfin are dependent on Wild Lupines.Restoration of oak savanna and woodland habitats with Wild Blue Lupine populations areunderway currently to recover these butterflies. Although butterflies are very visible andattractive, the insects that live in dead wood comprise the largest proportion of insect diversityof oak woodlands. Close to 150 species of ants, flies, beetles, and wasps live in dead oak logs.Figure 12: Mottled Duskywing. Photo JessicaLinton14

Table 4. Animals of Oak Woodland in Southern Ontario (rare species in bold)Common NameScientific NameCommon NameINSECTS / BUTTERFLIESTiger BeetleSilver Spotted SkipperFrosted ElfinSpring AzureDreamy Dusky WingJuvenal's Dusky WingColumbine Dusky WingMottled DuskywingWild Indigo DuskywingHorace's DuskywingSleepy DuskywingPersius DuskywingCoral HairstreakEastern Pine ElfinKarner BlueLittle Wood SatyrPearl CrescentBanded HairstreakHickory HairstreakEdwards HairstreakStriped HairstreakRegal FritillaryBIRDSCicindela patruelaEpargyreus clarusCallophrys irusCelastrina argiolusErynnis icelusErynnis juvenalisErynnis luciliusErynnis martialisErynnis baptisiaeErynnis horatiusErynnis brizo brizoErynnis persiusHarkenclenus titusIncisalia niphonLycaeides melissa samuelisMegisto cymelaPhycoides tharosSatyrium calanusSatyrium caryaevorusSatyrium edwardsiiSatyrium liparopsSpeyeria idaliaREPTILES & mericanToadBufoamericanusFive-lined SkinkBlue RacerEastern Garter SnakeBrown SnakeEastern Hognose SnakeGray RatsnakeEastern Fox SnakeScientific NameEumeces fasciatusColuber constrictor flaviventrisThamnophis sirtalisStoreria dekayiHeterodon platirhinosPantherophis spiloidesPantherophis gloydi15Ruffed GrouseWild TurkeyNorthern BobwhiteWhip-poor-willRed-headed WoodpeckerGreat Crested FlycatcherBlue JayTufted TitmouseWhite-breasted NuthatchBrown ThrasherCerulean WarblerKentucky WarblerHooded WarblerScarlet TanagerEastern TowheeSummer TanagerRose-breasted GrosbeakBonasa umbellusMeleagris gallopavaColinus virginianusCaprimulgus vociferusMelanerpes erythrocephalusMyiarchus crinitusCyanocitta cristataParus bicolorSitta carolinensisToxostoma rufumDendroica ceruleaOporornis formosusWilsonia citrinaPiranga olivaceaPipilo erythrophthalmusPiranga rubraPheucticus ludovicianusMAMMALSVirginia OpposumEastern CottontailEastern ChipmunkGrey SquirrelSouthern Flying SquirrelWhite-footed MouseDidelphis virginianaSylvilagus floridanusTamias striatusSciurus carolinensisGlaucomys volansPeromyscus leucopusDeer MousePeromyscus maniculatusMeadow VoleWoodland VoleRed FoxLong-tailed WeaselStriped SkunkWhite-tailed DeerAmerican BadgerMicrotus pennsylvanicusMicrotus pinetorumVulpes vulpesMustela frenataMephitis mephitisOdocoileus virginianusTaxidea taxus jacksoni

4.0 Natural Disturbance and StressOak woodland ecosystems have probably existed in North America for about 20 - 25 millionyears (south of the extent of the glaciers). Oak woodlands, tallgrass prairies and oak savannasare disturbance-maintained systems. Disturbance is defined as any action that quickly removessome living biomass. A disturbance seldom affects all components of a community equally.Some components may be very stressed, some merely stressed, while others are unaffected orenhanced. Historically, the three major causes of disturbance within oak ecosystems were fire,drought, and herbivory (e.g., grazing herds). These disturbances are, in turn, affected by eachother. Other, less important disturbances included disease (e.g., oak wilt), floods, tornadoesand high winds, and ice storms.4.1 FireThe open canopy of large trees with fire-resistant bark, scattered thickets of shrubs, and thesolid ground cover of wildflowers, grasses, sedges and low growing shrubs, the signs ofhealthy oak woodland, are maintained by frequent, low-intensity fires. The result is an open,traversable landscape housing a diverse array of plants that flower from early spring to latefall. The large canopy trees survive the flames as they have fire-resistant bark. The youngtrees, although susceptible to fire, survive by persistent suckering following fire die-back.Figure 13: Oak woodland often occurs at the transition zone between oak savanna and forest.Photo Larry LambThe shade gradient from tallgrass prairie to oak savanna to oak woodland to forest is also a firegradient; prairies experience fire most frequently and the other habitats less frequently (seeTable 1). A tallgrass prairie is maintained by frequent (every 1 - 5 years), high intensity fireswhereas an oak savanna typically burned as frequently (every 1 - 5 years) but with reducedintensity or much less frequently (5 - 20 years) with more intensity. Often, more fuel (e.g., driedgrasses) would build up after a prolonged period of no burns, leading to more intense flames.Oak woodlands typically burned at the same frequency as savannas (1 -5 or 5- 20 yrs) but with16

less intensity due to the reduced fuel load of grasses and a topographic position that lessenedthe rate of flame spread. Mesic hardwood forests (sugar maple-beech)did not burn regularly.Historically, tallgrass prairies, oak savannas,oak woodlands and forests grew next to eachother in a mosaic pattern.Often, tallgrassprairies were ringed by oak savannas, oakwoodlands and forests. One habitat type wouldstart and another stop because of subtledifferences in slope, soil, water, and firefrequency and intensity.Nature does not draw firebreaks between thesavanna, woodland and forests. Firebreaks weredrawn by rivers, wetlands, geological featuressuch as patches of bedrock, slopes, wind, wildlifeactivity, and other unknown factors. Thefrequency and intensity of fire was linked toseveral factors including plant communitystructure and vegetation type, topography andlandscape context, soil texture, climate andactivities of Aboriginal people.Fires were started in two ways lightning strikesand Aboriginal people.Lightning probablyFigure 14: Oak woodland after a springaccounted for fire only in summer duringfire. Photo Larry Lambdrought years when the vegetation was dryenough to burn. Aboriginal or First Nationspeople routinely burned tracts of land for a variety of reasons. Fire was used to clear undesirablewoody growth for agricultural use and to replace old growth with new growth which attractedmore wildlife that they hunted for food. Reducing the subcanopy also made travel easier. Firewas also a means of herding animals during the hunt and was used to aid escape during battle.There are accounts that fire was set for entertainment. So, fires were set frequently andthroughout the year.Figure 15: Curled, driedoak leaves (PhotoGraham Buck)The structure and vegetation of healthy oak woodlandencourages fire in many ways. The leaves of oaks, pines,hickories and chestnut are conducive to burning for a fewreasons. Firstly, they are slow to break down so they build up onthe ground providing the fuel for a fire to spread. Secondly, oakleaves curl up along the margin so they dry quickly and allowoxygen to mix with the leaves (e.g., they don’t get matted downas maple leaves do). Dry, fluffed up leaves is the perfect fuel forfire. Thirdly, the wood of oak, hickory, pine and chestnutremains dry it accumulates on the forest floor. Like the leaves,the wood is slow to breakdown and does not become soft and weteasily on the ground. Finally, the sun-loving grasses, ferns andflowers that occupy the ground layer, are flammable in early springor during a drought.17

4.2 Drought: Topography, Soils, and ClimateDrought, or lack of available moisture, is another important environmental stress that has ledto the development of non-forest habitats. Drought is not merely a climatic factor (e.g., lowprecipitation); topography and soils also determine moisture availability and play a role in firespread.Oak savannas occurred on dry soils (sand and gravel), resulting in sparse tree growth anddrought-resistant tallgrass prai

1illustrates the differences in form and tree density of oak savanna, oak woodland and forest. Oak Savanna, Oak Woodland and Oak Forest Sketches (Source: Island Press, Washington, DC) Figure 6: Oak Savanna. Sunny grassland with scattered trees, mostly oaks. Trees have many side branches. Figure 7: Oak Woodland. Intermediate between oak savanna .

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of forests and promote woodland and savanna communities as defined by Nelson (2010). Collectively, these site characteristics often increase the likelihood of droughts that limit tree development and fires that can create oak woodlands and savannas. Certain oak species such as post oak (Quercus stellata), white oak (Q. alba), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa

SECTIONS: Houston, Sabine, Chihuahua 2019 Welding Summit August 29-30, 2019 The Woodlands Resort The Woodlands, TX Welcome to the AWS 2019 Welding Summit, held in the Woodlands TX, August 29-30- The Woodlands Resort. This document is meant as an exhibitor planning tool for the event. If you have any additional

Feb 10, 2021 · Walgreens. Cases related to Long-Term Care and Assisted Living Facilities. . at Oak Park Arms, 408 S. Oak Park Avenue. Facility Name # of Resident Cases # of Resident Deaths # of Staff Cases . Belmont Village of Oak Park 29 8 3 3 Berkeley Nursing & Rehab Center 4 7 11 15 Brookdale Oak Park 11 2 25 Oak Park Arms 18 1 . 11 . Oasis of Oak Park .

oak woodlands can be altered in many ways, and the consequences for wildlife can be similar to what has occurred in eastern deciduous forests. Fragmentation that is caused by the construction of homes, road building, tree thinning, and heavy grazing in California oak woodlands can lead to invasion and population increases

Table 1: Estimated oak woodland acreage in Humboldt County by stand type 5 Table 2: Acres of privately-owned oak woodlands by ownership size class 7 . THE FOLLOWING STATUS REPORT IS INTENDED TO SUPPORT THE LONG-TERM, VOLUNTARY CONSERVATION OF OAK WOODLANDS BY PRIVATE .

English Oak Wilsonart 7885K-78 Match –English Oak Wood Finish Figured Mahogany Wilsonart 7040-60 Match –Cordovan Oak Wood Finish Gunstock Walnut Wilsonart W313- 60 Match –Executive Oak Wood Finish Solar Oak Wilsonart 7816-–Autumn Oak Wood Finish Windsor Mahogany Wilsonart 7039-60 Match –Light Cherry On Oak Wood Finish

well as themes from PALS enquiries and formal complaints received within Western Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust during 2018. Patient experience monthly reports are provided to operational teams and patient comments are automatically shared with our staff. Leaders of our clinical services use the feedback we receive from patients to shape quality improvement activities at ward level and see whether .