Trade Patterns - Mrs. Compton's Social Studies Class

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Afro-EurasianTrade PatternsBetween600 – 1450 CE

Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns between 600 – 1450What four ancient trade routes dominated Afro-Eurasian Trade? Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade(c. 1550 BCE – Present) Trans-Saharan Trade Routes(c. 800 BCE – Present) Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (c. 300 BCE – Present) Eurasian Silk Road(c. 200 BCE – Present)What facilitated their dominance over Afro-Eurasian Trade? Improved Technologies(Saddles, Caravans, Compass, Astrolabe) Growth of New Trade Cities (Timbuktu, Swahili City-States, Hongzhou) Trade in Luxury Goods(Silk, Cotton, Porcelain, Coffee, Tea, Spices) Expansion of Empires(Ghana, Mali, Dar al-Islam, Tang and Mongol)

Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns between 600 – 1450What Promoted Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade? Development of the Arab-Berber Trans-Sahara Camel Caravans Development and Spread of Dar al-Islam by Arab-Berber Traders Development and Expansion of Sudanic Kingdoms in Western Africa Development of Important Trade Centers (D’Jenne & Timbuktu) Inter-Regional Trade of Luxury Goods between Africans and Arabs

What Promoted Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade?Development of the Arab-Berber Trans-Sahara Camel Caravans Berber originally dominated Northern Africa Adopted Islam during the 7th Century CE Two Arab-Berber Dynasties dominated thearea from Northern Africa to the WesternSahara between 1040 – 1269 CE Key Trade partners with the Nomadic TuaregTUAREG TRIBE Originally Nomadic Herders Dominated the regions ofthe central Sahara & Sahel Adopted Camel Nomadicismfrom camel-herding Arabs Adopted Islam during the7th Century CE Known as the “Blue People”

What Promoted Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade?Development and Expansion of Sudanic Kingdoms in Western AfricaKingdom of Ghana (500 – 1078 CE) Major Sudanic Trading State by 700 CE First to link Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade Dominated by Soninke & Mande People Soninke Rulers never fully adopted Islam Declined due to internal fightingEmpire of Mali (1230 – 1530 CE) Founded by Sundiata Keita Wealth originally due to growing beans,rice and eventually cotton Expanded to control Trans-Saharan Trade Mansa Musa adopted Islam as religion ofthe Empire Established Mosques, Libraries & Schools

What Promoted Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade?Development of Important Trade Centers:D’Jenne & Timbuktu D’Jenne was a walled urbantrade center along the NigerRiver by 850 CE Tuareg nomads establishedTimbuktu closer to caravantrade routes (c. 10th Century) Islam was introduced to theregion during the 10th Century Sankore Mosque was built inTimbuktu by 988 CE By the 11th Century Merchantshad abandoned D’Jenne andestablished markets in Timbuktu Sankore University was foundedin Timbuktu by 1327 CE Thousands of scholars lived andstudied in Timbuktu by 15th Century

What Promoted Expansion of the Trans-Saharan Trade?Inter-Regional Trade of Luxury Goods between Africans and ArabsPrimary Trade Goodsfrom theSudanic Region PrimaryTrade Goodsfrom EthiopiaPrimaryTrade GoodsFrom North Africa Ebony Colored Dye Gold Leather Coffee Beans Camels Iron Wheat & BarleySaltIvoryGoldSlaves

denEthiopiaAfro-EurasianPersiaCalicutTrade PatternsBetween 600 - 1450ZeilaWhat Promoted the Expansionof the Indian Ocean Trade? Improved knowledge of OceanSumatraZanzibarJavaKilwaCurrents & Seasonal Monsoons Development of the Compass,Astrolabe & Better Ship BuildingMadagascarSofala Development and Spread ofDar al-Islam by Arab Traders Development of Important Trade Centers (Calicut andthe Swahili City-States) Inter-Regional Trade of Luxury Goods between Arabs,Africans and Indians

What Promoted the Expansion of the Indian Ocean Trade?Improved knowledge of Ocean Currents & Seasonal MonsoonsIndian Ocean CurrentsIndian Ocean Monsoons Early traders used coastal currentsfor trade to avoid being blown off course Early traders were at the mercy of thedominant monsoon winds for travel Later knowledge of Equatorial currentsallowed traders to expand sea travel Knowledge of Seasonal Monsoonpatterns allowed traders to establishnew routes across the Indian Ocean

What Promoted the Expansion of the Indian Ocean Trade?Development of the Compass, Astrolabe & Better Ship BuildingASTROLABE Records of early developments date back to ancient Greece Medieval Islamic Astronomers improved the design The Spherical Astrolabe was invented by 10th Century CEMAGNETIC COMPASS Earliest Chinese reference (1119 CE) Earliest Islamic reference (1232 CE) Earliest European use (1187 CE)MOGADISHAN SHIP Developed during Medieval Period Had an enlarged and modified Dhow like design Utilized multiple Lateen Sails for control & maneuverability Described in Chinese records (circa 10th – 13th Centuries)

What Promoted the Expansion of the Indian Ocean Trade?Development of Important Trade Centers:Swahili City-States Traders from the Arabian Peninsulaand Persian Gulf settled along thecoast as early as the 1st Century CE Stone type urban settlements aroseby the 10th Century CE Two Arab Sultanates were developedat Mogadishu and Kilwa (960-1000 CE) The island port of Zanzibar became majortrade center by the 11th Century Inter-marriage and the necessity of tradehelped develop the Swahili Language Both Marco Polo (circa 1295) andIbn Battuta (circa 1330) described thetrade along the Swahili Coast

What Promoted the Expansion of the Indian Ocean Trade?Inter-Regional Trade of Luxury Goods between Arabs, Africans and IndiansPrimary Trade Goodsfrom India Dye (Indigo) Cotton TeaPrimary Trade Goodsfrom theSwahili City-StatesPrimary TradeGoods fromArabia & Persia Gold Wool Ivory Muslin fabric Sandlewood Wheat &Barley Copper Slaves Frankensence& Myrrh Spices& Herbs

Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns between 600 – 1450What Promoted the Expansion of Trade along the Silk Road ? Development of Trade Caravans and Maritime Shipping linked East & West Development and Expansion of Important Trade Centers (Land & Sea) Spread of Buddhist, Nestorian and Islamic Faiths by Pilgrims and Traders Expansion of Existing Empires (Dar al-Islam, Tang Dynasty and the Mongols) Trans-Regional Trade in Luxury Goods between Arabs, Indians & Chinese

What Promoted the Expansion of Trade along the Silk Road ?Development of Trade Caravans & Maritime Shipping linked East & WestSOGDIANS Played a major role in facilitating trade between the Hanand Mongol Dynasties (2nd Century BCE – 13th Century CE) Sogdiana became primary trade language along Silk Road Used both Persian horses and Bactrian camels for transport Described as very literate by Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzangduring the 7th century CE Responsible for establishing communities from Samarkandto Turfan along the Silk RoadSWAHILI Played a major role in maritime trade between East Africa,India and China between 2nd Century BCE – 13th Century CE) Clay figures found in China represent Swahili traders anddate back to the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 CE) Chinese Commissioner reported Swahili traders deliveringgoods in 1226 CE Chinese tradition indicates that Swahili ships were large andstrong enough to transport Giraffe and Rhino to China

What Promoted the Expansion of Trade along the Silk Road ?Expansion of Existing Empires (Islamic, Chinese & Mongol)Islamic Empire (7th – 13th Century) Linking previously isolated regions Promoted Muslim Exploration and Trade Known as the Golden age of IslamTang Dynasty (618 – 907) Pax Sinica (Period of Peaceand Prosperity in East Asia) Persian & Sogdian Merchantsdominated commerce Golden age of the Silk Road(Strong land & maritime trade)Mongol Empire (1226 – 1368) Pax Mongolica (Period of Peace & Stability) Encouraged foreign Merchants and Trade Re-established and Expanded Silk Routes

What Promoted the Expansion of Trade along the Silk Road ?Development and Expansion of Important Trade Centers (Land & Sea)SAMARKAND (Sogdiana) Official terminus and major TradeCenter of the Caravan Trade Routebetween China and Persia Visited by Hsuan-Tsang during the7th Century CE Arab Control by the 8th Century CEHANGZHOU (China) Official terminus and major Trade Center of theMaritime Trade Route between China and India Believed to be the largest city in the worldbetween 1180 – 1358 CE Visited by both Marco Polo (c. 1280’s) andIbn Battuta (c. 1346) Visited by both Marco Polo (c. 1273)and Ibn Battuta (c. 1330’s)

What Promoted the Expansion of Trade along the Silk Road ?Trans-Regional Trade in Luxury Goods between Arabs, Indians & ChinesePrimary Trade Goodsfrom China Silk Jade Rice Pearls Porcelain TeaPrimary Trade Goodsfrom India Herbs and Spices Cotton DyePrimary Trade Goodsfrom Persia Carpets Muslin Horses

600 – 1450 CE . Afro-Eurasian Trade Patterns between 600 – 1450 What four ancient trade routes dominated Afro-Eurasian Trade? Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (c. 1550 BCE – Present) Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (c. 800 BCE – Present)

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