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HOWMAGAZINEADVERTISINGWORKSFifth edition Guy Consterdine July 2005

CONTENTSCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY56(A) THE READER RELATIONSHIP91.People have a variety of interests and needs– People’s interests vary– Nine basic media needs2. Great variety of magazines means readers’ needs are met3. Four ways in which magazines deliver engagement– Trust: a friend and advocate– Support: help in managing our lives– Status: our sense of position, belonging & confidence– Participation: a bridge to interactivity4. The drivers of magazine reading5. Different types of magazine work in different ways6. The personal character of individual titles7. Close relationship between readers and chosen magazines– Magazines as brands– Selecting a magazine that expresses one’s own self– Examples of close relationships– Weak relationship: newspaper colour supplements/sections– Evolution: keeping the relationship fresh8. The ‘magazine moment’9. Matching the magazine to the mood– The reader’s repertoire of magazines– Selecting from the repertoire to match the mood– Selecting within an individual magazine to match the mood10. The physical aspects of handling magazines– How copies are obtained– Time spent reading– Proportion of issue read– Similar patterns in other countries11. Repeat reading– Page EXposures (PEX)12. Readership accumulation through 4242526272932(B) THE ADVERTISER RELATIONSHIP: MAGAZINES’ EFFECTIVENESS AS AN ADVERTISING MEDIUM3413. How readers use magazine advertisements– Effect of interest in product field or brand14. Advertisement noting– What ad noting measures, and its limitations– Indices of ad noting, by size, colour and other factors– Ad clutter is not a problem in magazines– Eyes open in front of page: the real measure of audience to ads15. Advertisers benefit from the reader-magazine relationship– How it works– Advertising: essential and enjoyable– Women’s style/feature monthlies– Women’s domestic monthlies– Women’s weeklies– Television weeklies16. The ‘presenter effect’3435363637383940404041414142432HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS

444546464646464646474849515151(C) EVIDENCE THAT MAGAZINE ADVERTISING SELLS PRODUCTS5322. Awareness & purchase consideration: IPC’s Ad Track– What Adtrack did– Results for Awareness– Results for Purchase Consideration– Conclusion23. Sales uplift and ROI: ‘Sales Uncovered’– How the analysis was done– 11.6% uplift in sales value– 18.1% uplift in sales volume– Uplift in market share– Winning new customers: brand penetration & weight of purchase– ROI: return on investment of 2.77– Summary– ‘Proof of Performance’ I & II24. More case history evidence that magazine advertising sells– UK evidence– International evidence– FIPP (International Federation of the Periodical Press)545454555556565657575758585859595959(D) CHANNEL PLANNING: POSITIONING MAGAZINES WITHIN THE TOTAL MEDIA LANDSCAPE6025. ‘Channel planning’ represents a fresh perspective26. Integrated communication: the research needs– IPA TouchPoints– BMRB’s ‘Compose’: 26 channels– Implications for magazine publishers27. Attitudes to media: information content & tailoring to users’ needs28. Attitudes to the advertising in each medium29. Other activities while using media– Share of attention30. Actions taken31. Magazines for courtship32. Media Experience Study: identifying magazine attributes– Experiencing the media– Experiencing the advertising33. Magazines and the internet– The website experience60626262636465676869707171727373HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS3CONTENTS17. Targeting is a key strength of magazines18. Creative executions to match the magazine19. Creative formats: impact and interaction– Double page spreads– Gatefolds– Print technology, textures and special papers– Samples, vouchers and gifts– Sponsorship and supplements– Advertisement features (‘advertorials’)– Samples, inserts & booklets: further evidence– Inserts not linked to an ad20. Action as a result of seeing magazine ads21. Pre-testing the magazine ad creative work– The need for pre-testing– Initial guidelines for creating effective magazine ads

CONTENTS– Magazines and web cross-referencing each other– Digital magazines and the internet– Sources of information about computers and digital products34. Customer magazines– Improving brand equity– Boosting purchases by 8%– Influencing brand image35. Magazines and promotions– Promotions work harder accompanied by magazine advertising– How profitable are promotions?73737475757676777777(E) MIXED-MEDIA ADVERTISING: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINING MAGAZINES AND TELEVISION7936. Magazines and TV37. TV magazines: improved distribution of advertising exposure– Benefits of TV print, in terms of exposure and targeting38. TV Magazines communicate better than TV-only– ‘Multiplying the Media Effect’– ‘The Media Multiplier’– A German media multiplier study: Ford Cougar– The synergy is world-wide39. Magazines equal TV for creating awareness – but do so at less cost– IPC's Ad Track– MPA's 113-brand tracking study40. Market tests: sales effectiveness of TV magazines– ‘Sales Uncovered’– ‘Proof of Performance’: TV magazines– USA: ‘Measuring Magazine Effectiveness’, MMA/MPA– UK: Cusson's Carex Hand Wash– UK: Nielsen’s ‘Strategies of Successful Brands’– UK: Kenco Freeze Dried Instant Coffee– Germany: Bauer and Hassloch BehaviourScan panel– USA: STAS of television and magazines41. TV & magazine campaigns: recency planning– The significance of NRS readership accumulation data– Diminishing returns to repetition– Nielsen data analysed by John Philip Jones– Re-presentation of Colin McDonalds’ data– Carat’s Penrith Project– Andrew Roberts’ analysis of Superpanel– Are one (or two) TV exposures a week enough?– Consumer buying behaviour: continuous42. How to split the budget between TV and magazines– ‘Measuring Magazine Effectiveness’, MMA/MPA– ‘The 30/30 Synergy Study’, South Africa– Hassloch BehaviourScan panel– ‘Sales Uncovered’– Millward Brown/MPA43. How to flight the two media44. Advertising in a recession45. Website for ‘How Magazine Advertising Works’: ERENCESINDEXABOUT THE AUTHOR1061111144HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS

INTRODUCTIONTO THE FIFTH EDITIONThe pace of development in media research seems to beaccelerating. It is fuelled by the advance of the digitalmedia, which is leading to new ways of thinking aboutmedia choice when planning advertising campaigns.This in turn creates a demand for new (or at any ratemodified) kinds of information, and thus speeds upresearch.Ten years after the first edition of this report waspublished in 1995 the fifth edition is necessary, in orderto incorporate the new learnings. The conclusions aboutthe effectiveness of magazine advertising remain thesame but they are strengthened by the fresh evidence.The purpose of this new edition, as for all its fourpredecessors, is to set out a description of howmagazine advertising works and to support every stepof the account by citing research evidence.PPA Marketing provides research and data to helpagencies and clients get the most out of consumermagazines. The magazine medium is a fast changingdynamic industry and to ensure that you are keptup-to-date with the latest magazine research go towww.ppamarketing.net. New research, which isreviewed in this report and can be downloaded fromPPA Marketing, includes Magazines Uncovered, a studylooking at the sales effect and return on investmentthat can be achieved by using the medium. The studyreviews real sales from real ad campaigns. It looks athow sales occur over time and the relationship to whenthe advertising was seen by the consumer. It also looksat the implications that this has on how advertisingshould be planned in magazines.The main focus of the report is on the UK, but in anumber of places I have referred to surveys from othercountries where they contribute evidence of a kind thatis not available in the UK, or where they provideimportant reinforcement of UK results. It is in fact veryclear, from the mounting evidence from dozens ofcountries around the world, that the characteristics ofmagazines which this report celebrates are not confinedto the UK. Readers’ love of their magazines, and theeffectiveness of advertising in the medium, are trulyglobal phenomena.I would be pleased to receive suggestions of newmaterial for inclusion in a future edition or on thereport’s website, or any comments about this edition.Guy ConsterdineINTRODUCTIONMore than 300 research studies have been referred to incompiling this report. The sheer number of studiesavailable has forced me to be very selective in the choiceof surveys to build into my review. Moreover I havesummarised most of them within a handfulof paragraphs or less. This hardly does justice to themas individual surveys but in all cases a referenceis given so that readers can examine the researchin more detail if desired, and sometimes a link to awebsite can be provided.A new feature of this edition is that the report now hasits own website, www.hmaw.net for presenting updatesand additional material. The site is described in the finalsection of this report.guy@consterdine.comwww.consterdine.comJuly 2005PPA Marketing has also developed training courses foragencies and clients to ensure that new thinking inhow the medium works can be discussed.If you work for an advertising agency, client ormagazine publisher and would be interested in talkingmore about the magazine medium please contact PPAMarketing. I hope that you find How MagazineAdvertising Works a helpful guide to getting the mostfrom advertising in the medium.HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS5

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis report is a synthesis of the large body of existingresearch which demonstrates how readers usemagazines, how the advertising within them works, andthat magazine advertising sells products.THE READER RELATIONSHIP EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The magazine medium’s essential strength lies inthe active way in which readers choose and usetheir magazines. Magazines are an active medium,with the reader in control.Since different categories of magazine fulfildifferent needs they work in different ways, whichare well adapted to their readers’ requirements.Similarly, within categories there are vitaldistinctions of character between individual titles,giving each title its own unique positioning.Readers become deeply engaged with theirmagazines. As a result a strong relationship, a bondof trust, grows up between the reader and his orher chosen magazines. Reading a favouritemagazine is like talking with a friend.A reader’s identification with an engagingmagazine can go well beyond the simple provision of information and ideas. When a magazine strikesa chord it can reinforce the reader’s own self-image.This creates a particularly powerful and trustingrelationship.Readers give commitment to their magazines. Thetime spent reading is substantial, and the copies areread thoroughly. Copies tend to be read repeatedly,often picked up more than once during a day andon more than one day. More than 90% of all pagesare opened by the typical reader. The average pagein a paid-for magazine is looked at 2.5 times byeach reader.Readers have their own repertoire of magazines tomeet different needs and moods. Matching themood and the magazine reinforces the values ofthe personal relationship and ensures that readingtakes place in a highly receptive frame of mind.THE ADVERTISER RELATIONSHIP The intimacy between reader and magazinebenefits advertisers. The magazine environmentdelivers a reader in the right frame of mind to bereceptive to the advertising. In the sympatheticcontext of the right magazine, the strong positivebrand values of the magazine can transfer onto theadvertisements.The stronger the reader’s affiliation with themagazine as a brand, the higher the level ofendorsement that the advertising receives from themagazine’s personality.Advertising is seen as an integral part of magazines.Relevant advertising is valued by readers, and isconsumed with interest. Readers screenadvertisements in much the same way as theyscreen the editorial - looking for items that interest,intrigue, catch the eye, entertain, inform.Because advertisements are relevant and valued, adclutter is not a problem in magazines. Clutter doesnot depress reading of ads, and may create a marketplace.Readers take action as a result of seeing advertisingin magazines.Targeting with precision and without wastage is akey strength of magazines.The communication can be enhanced by usingdifferent creative executions in different types ofmagazine - targeting through the creative work aswell as through selecting the appropriate audience.Creative formats such as gatefolds, textures, specialpapers, samples, sponsorship, advertisementfeatures (‘advertorials’), and so on can createadditional impact and interaction.The ‘presenter effect’ means that the interpretationof a given advertisement can be influenced by thespecific publication in which it appears.It is wise to pre-test the creative executions in orderto ensure that they take maximum advantage ofthis active involvement in advertisements, and thatthey communicate the intended messages.EVIDENCE THAT MAGAZINE ADVERTISING SELLS PRODUCTS 6The landmark ‘Ad Track’ survey proved thatmagazine advertising can generate markedincreases in advertising awareness. ‘Ad Track’ also proved that magazines can generatemovement in willingness to consider buying theadvertised brands.HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS

PPA’s ‘Sales Uncovered’, a 2005 analysis of TNSSuperpanel data, showed that magazineadvertising was associated with an 11.6% uplift insales of fmcg products, in money terms. In volumeterms, the uplift was 18.1%. There were alsoincreases in market share, brand penetration, andweight of purchase.‘Sales Uncovered’ also showed that the mediumterm (12 month) return on investment from magazine advertising was 2.77 for the averagefmcg brand. This is comparable with that oftelevision advertising.There are many studies and case histories in whichmagazine campaigns are shown to sell productseffectively and sometimes dramatically. PPA, IPA,FIPP and individual publishers have all releasedexamples.CHANNEL PLANNING: POSITIONING MAGAZINES WITHIN THE TOTALMEDIA ENVIRONMENT There is growth in multi-tasking – using anothermedium or doing some other activity whileconsuming media – but magazine reading hasrelatively low distraction. When sharing time withtelevision or radio, magazines attract the mainattention.Magazines and the internet work well together.Information in magazines sometimes leads readersto obtain more details on the internet, and theymay then purchase something as a result ofexposure to both media.Customer magazines improve the brand image ofthe commissioning companies, and boostconsumer spending on the brand by about 8%.Sales promotions work better when accompaniedby magazine advertising. However promotions arenot necessarily profitable at all.MIXED-MEDIA ADVERTISING: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBININGMAGAZINES AND TELEVISION Magazines and television are complementary toone another. TV advertising is powerful, intrusivebut fleeting. Magazine advertising is under thecontrol of the readers, carries the readerrelationship values, and can reach light viewers.There is clear evidence that a TV-plus-magazinesstrategy will be more effective than a TV-onlycampaign.Most TV-only campaigns give inadequate weight toimportant sectors of the market - lighter viewers ofcommercial television, who tend to be younger,upmarket and better educated. A combination oftelevision and magazines can achieve a veryconsiderable improvement in the way exposures aredistributed across the audience. In other words,better targeting. Because of the different ways in which the twomedia work, the communication from a TVcampaign can be enhanced by adding magazines.Magazines can both convey new information that isnot in the TV commercial, and lead people toperceive the TV commercial in new ways. The resultis a richer, more complete communication.Magazines make television work harder. The pageand the screen nourish each other.Magazine campaigns create awareness at a verysimilar level to television. The Adtrack study showedthat across a range of campaigns, the averageawareness achieved by 100 gross rating points in TVwas 13%, and in magazines the average was exactlythe same, 13%. But the magazine exposures aregenerated at roughly half the cost of TV.HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS7EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ‘Channel planning’ is a fresh way of looking at on’ is wider than ‘advertising’. Agreater number of communication channels arebeing considered than in previous decades. Thisimposes fresh requirements on the provision ofresearch.Publishers need to spell out how magazines fit intothe mix of channels, defining the uniquecontribution of magazines.In comparisons between six media – magazines,newspapers, newspaper supplements, TV, radio andwebsites – magazines lead in terms of providinginteresting information and being tailored to users’needs.Advertising in magazines is seen more positivelythan advertising in other media.Magazines, followed by websites, are the mostaction-oriented of the six media.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8Evidence from America reached the sameconclusion: dollar for dollar, magazines deliversignificantly higher advertising awareness levelsthan television.PPA’s ‘Sales Uncovered’ 2005 study showed thatmagazine advertising has a similar sales effect totelevision advertising, but at a much lower cost.Reinforcing this, PPA’s earlier analyses of consumerpanel data also found that magazines producesignificant gains in market share when used incombination with television advertising. Among theheavier-reading section of magazine readers,magazine advertising increased average brandshare by 11%, over and above the effect of thetelevision advertising.Other analyses from America showed that, dollarfor dollar, magazines generate more sales thantelevision.More and more market tests and case histories, inUK and elsewhere, are proving that mixed-mediaTV-plus-magazines campaigns out-perform the TVonly strategy in selling products.The improved performance from a mixed-mediacampaign is due to a combination of upmarket segments) and morepowerful communication than television alone candeliver.The 2004 NRS Readership Accumulation Survey enables exposures to magazine advertising to bedistributed through time in an accurate way,reflecting the rate of build-up of readers of amagazine issue. This means that magazineadvertising can be planned in the same way astelevision advertising: through weekly ratings pointsand weekly reach estimates.All media are subject to diminishing returns, andmany television campaigns appear to have reachedthe point of very low marginal returns. Themarginal TV money would be better spent inanother medium, especially magazines.There are strong arguments for continuousadvertising pressure (as opposed to heavy burstswith gaps in between). Magazines are excellent atdelivering this, whether on their own or incombination with other media.When TV and magazines are being used together, itpays to put at least 25%-30% of the budget intomagazines, according to several studies.Television and magazine advertisements should runtogether rather than at different times, so themessages can interact for maximum synergy.In times of recession, it pays to maintain or evenincrease one’s advertising instead of cutting it.This report has its own website for providing updatesand new research, and more detailed information:www.hmaw.netHOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS

(A) THE READER RELATIONSHIP1. PEOPLE HAVE A VARIETY OF INTERESTS AND NEEDSThe strength of magazines begins with the fact thatpeople have strong interests and needs, and theseinterests vary from person to person.The Henley Centre [2] has identified nine basic medianeeds, split into two main classes: informational needsand cultural needs. The nine are:Even among those interested in a particular broadsubject area there are distinctions between people interms of the nature of their interest in the subject. Thesedistinctions are much less obvious than those betweenbroad subject areas. The gardening market furnishes anexample. A survey conducted by Marketing Direction forEMAP Apex [1] used cluster analysis to segment themarket in terms of attitudes and reasons for interest ingardening. Eight clusters were identified. Ranked inorder of size, they were labelled:Accomplished flower gardenerLeisure gardenerMaintainerDeveloping EnthusiastCulinary gardenerSecond career gardenerPrivate hobbyistLow budget gardenerInformation needs: Instrumental: information for daily life such asweather, transport, traffic, sales, opening andclosing times, etc. Analysis: to understand the world, form views,have opinions. Enlightenment: keeping up with the world,national and local events; being and becominginformed. Self-enhancement: bettering ourselves, selfenhancement, knowledge for its own sake or forlater application; acquisition of skills.These different groups have different requirements fromgardening magazines. And the magazines serving themhave developed varied characteristics, with many ofthem appealing to different shades of interest. Thereaders are in fact served by about a dozen mainstreamgardening magazines and also a variety of very narrowlyfocused titles. This specialisation means that eachmagazine can get very close to the people with theparticular attitude and focus which the title offers.Cultural needs: Ritual: media use which frames daily routines, suchas getting up, going to work, relaxing after work,accompanying domestic chores. Default: absorbing media because it is there orbecause others within the social context are using it. Relaxation: passive absorption of media,unwinding. Entertainment: keeping ourselves amused,keeping others amused, having fun. Escapism: frees the user mentally from theimmediate constraints and/or dullness of daily life,enabling him/her to enter into new experiencesvicariously.HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS9THE READER RELATIONSHIPNINE BASIC MEDIA NEEDSAPEOPLE’S INTERESTS VARY

2. THE GREAT VARIETY OF MAGAZINES MEANS THAT READERS’NEEDS CAN BE METThis wide range of needs, by subject matter and byHenley-style categories, creates a demand whichmagazines can meet because there is such a variety ofthem. And it is a growing variety. The increasing numberof consumer magazines not only declares a very healthymarket but is also a visible sign of increasingfragmentation. Each subject area tends to be brokendown by magazines focusing on more and morespecialist areas within it, and thus striking anincreasingly personal link with those readers who areespecially interested in a given subsector. Judie Lannonvividly described this process at a PPA seminar as “massmarketing becoming mass customisation” [3].different needs, the Henley Centre made the point that“the fulfilment of these needs is not just a function ofthe content delivered in the magazine, it can also be afunction of the values and associations of the magazinebrand and of the physical qualities of the magazine. Forexample, a glossy woman’s monthly delivers much morethan content on style and fashion. It may also representany of the following: an association with the magazinebrand, a self indulgent treat, time to oneself, escapism,and so on” [2].The Henley Centre devised a chart to represent thedegree to which each of a dozen categories ofmagazine satisfied the nine media needs alreadydescribed:ATHE READER RELATIONSHIPWith so many different types of magazine fulfillingInformational needsContent ing***Current affairsEnt/listingsCultural needsEnlight- Selfenha-**enment ******Erotic****Food, drink********Hobbies*********Lifestyle, home*******Local interest***Sport**Style & ************Note that no magazines fulfil the 'Default' function. Noone reads a magazine because it is already 'on' magazines are only read when someone makes adeliberate personal choice.10Escapism*****Relax-*This chart underlines a vital point in a simple way:different kinds of magazine fulfil different needs andtherefore work in different ways. The implication is thatthe readers who choose a given type of magazine findthat they develop a relationship with it.HOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS

3. FOUR WAYS IN WHICH MAGAZINES DELIVER ENGAGEMENTA separate study in 2004 by the Henley Centre,‘Planning For Consumer Change’ [4] – summarised inPPA’s report ‘Delivering Engagement’ [5] - approachedthe topic from a different direction. People have becomeso overloaded with media exposure and informationbombardment that it is no longer sufficient for amedium or an advertisement to win consumers’attention: it is necessary to win their active involvementand truly engage them. The Henley Centre concludedthat magazines have the characteristics to achieve thisengagement in four ways: trust, support, status andparticipation.scale: personal, requiring active use, and representingchoice. The reader is in control. Favourite magazinesbecome part of the personal networks of trust. Othermedia are placed further out from the centre, and themore they represent public, passive, choice-lessexposure, the further out they are – the more distantfrom consumers’ own world, and the more difficult toattract trust and engagementTRUST: A FRIEND AND ADVOCATEAThe Henley Centre found that people’s trust intraditional external sources of authority continues towane while cynicism grows. Instead people areincreasingly putting their faith in their closest, mostimmediate networks of family and friends. Trust resideslargely in what the Henley Centre termed ‘MY world’rather than ‘THE world’. Diagrammatically, the closer tothe centre of the concentric circles, the higher thedegree of trust there is likely to be.People are increasingly concerned with selfimprovement. Just as the Victorians were renowned fortheir self-help attitudes, so the quest for new skills,expertise and insight has led the Henley Centre to callthe growing numbers caught up in this trend the ‘newVictorians’. Magazines are well placed to act as mentorand coach, and achieve the depth of engagement thatensues. There are magazines of every type to match theindividual’s interests and requirements.Magazines dovetail well with the concept of ‘MY world’because they enjoy many of the same characteristics ofa close friend (a point that is further developed later inthis report). They also earn a place at the centre of ‘MYworld’ on three key dimensions: Individuals today bounce through their lives in a morevaried and complex way than did previous generations.Most people are faced by a greater number of so-called‘life events’: changing jobs (repeatedly), moving home,getting divorced, starting an exercise regime, changingfrom full-time to part-time work, etc. As their lifechanges and they face new challenges they needsources to turn to for information and advice.Magazines have a significant role here, supporting themand helping them manage.STATUS: OUR SENSE OF POSITION, BELONGING ANDCONFIDENCEPersonal versus publicActive versus passiveChoice versus no choiceOn each of these, magazines are at the ‘me’ end of theStatus rewards us with a sense of position, belongingand confidence. It’s not simply how others see us, butalso how we see our own selves. Our quest for status isHOW MAGAZINE ADVERTISING WORKS11THE READER RELATIONSHIPSUPPORT: HELP IN MANAGING OUR LIVES

of fundamental emotional importance. The philosopherAlain de Botton has even written a best-selling bookabout it, ‘Status Anxiety’ [6].ATHE READER RELATIONSHIPThe Henley Centre study showed that magazines can bea powerful way for individuals to build, reinforce andboost their status. A particular title can make a publicstatement about the reader’s position in the world, andprovide the reader with self-esteem. The choice ofmagazine says something about the reader. ‘You arewhat you read’. These expressive values can be deliveredin a number of ways, such as expertise, exclusivity andbadging.Expertise: making readers feel they are sharing inexpertise, specialist knowledge and up-to-dateinformation helps them to sense that they are gainingan edge in personal skills and interests, and that they areequipped for informal networking and gossip.Exclusivity: magazines can help readers feel they are abit special and exclusive, elevating them and givingthem a cosy warm feeling of clubbiness. Devices such asa letters page, reader offers, clubs, etc help to indicateand reinforce an exclusive positioning anddifferentiation.for themselves. If they want to know something, theyexpect to be able to find it out, and more or lessinstantly. They feel more in control of information thanpreviously. It’s less of a mass-media world than it was,and more of a personalised-media world. This meansmore involvement and engagement.For decades publishers have said that no other majormedium puts the user in control as much as print does.When reading a magazine or newspaper, the reader canspend as much or as little time as desired in looking atan article or an advertisement. By contrast, whenviewing television or listening to radio, it is thebroadcaster who is in control of the time spent exposedto each piece of information or entertainment. A 20second commercial lasts for 20 seconds and no longer.But a print advertisement can be studied for as long asthe reader wants, and repeatedly too.Suddenly the internet has appeared and overtaken printmedia in this respect. The internet user is even more incontrol than the magazine or newspaper reader.Where

Advertising Works a helpful guide to getting the most from advertising in the medium. This report is a synthesis of the large body of existing research which demonstrates how readers use magazines, how the advertising within them works, and that magazine advertising sells products.

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