Unit I Syllabus- 1. Cutting Tools And Cutting Materials 2. Cutting Tool .

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UNIT – I SYLLABUSCutting tools-various types of single point cutting tools and their uses, single point cutting tool geometry, tool signature and its effect, heat produced during cutting and its effects, cutting speed, feed and depth of cut and their effect. Cutting tool materials- properties of cutting tool materials, study of various cutting tool materials viz. High speed steel, tungsten carbide, cobalt steel cemented carbides, satellite, ceramics and diamond. 1. CUTTING TOOLS AND CUTTING MATERIALS A cutting tool is subjected to static and dynamic forces, high temperature, wear and abrasion. To get reasonable tool life, the tool material should meet following requirements: 1. Hot hardness 2. Wear and abrasion resistance. 3. Impact toughness. 2. CUTTING TOOL AND ITS TYPE The tools which are used for the purpose of cutting the metals in the desired shape and size are called cutting tool. 1. Single Point Cutting Tool 2. Multi Point Cutting Tool The cutting tools may also be classified according to the motion as follow: 1. Linear motion tools 2. Rotary motion tools 3. Linear and Rotary motion tools 3. VARIOUS TYPES OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOLS AND THEIR USES 3.1 Tools for Lathe machines: 1. Turning tool 2. Facing tool 3. Chamfering tool 4. External threading tool 5. Internal threading tool 6. Boring tool

3.2 Tools for Planers: 1. Straight and Bent Roughing Tools 2. Straight Beck, Round Nose and Goose Neck Tools 3.3 Tools for shapers 1. Round nose roughing tool 2.Down cutting tool 3. Square nose finishing tool 4. Side recessing tool 5. Parting off tool 6. Goose neck tool 4. IMPORTANT TERM RELATING TO SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL 4.1 Single point cutting tool

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Shank Flank Face Heel Nose Neck Cutting edge 4.2 Angles The various angles of the single point cutting tool have great importance. Each angle has its own function and speciality. 5. TOOL SIGNATURE The shape of a tool is specified in a special sequence and this special sequence is called tool signature. The tool signature is given below 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Back rake angle Side rake angle End relief / Clearance angle Side relief / Clearance angle End cutting edge angle Side cutting edge angle Nose radius 6. EFFECT OF HEAT PRODUCED DURING METAL CUTTING It reduced the tool life It reduced the surface finish It causes the welding of chips with the face of tool Repeated replacement of tools occurs which increases the cost 7. CUTTING SPEED Cutting speed of a cutting tool may be defined as the speed at which the cutting edge passes over the material. 8. FEED Feed of a cutting tool may be defined as the distance through which the tool advances in to or along work piece each time the tool passes a certain position in its travel over the surface. 9. DEPTH OF CUT Depth of cut may be defined as the perpendicular distances measured from the machined surface to the uncut surface of the work piece.

10. PROPERTIES OF THE CUTTING TOOL MATERIALS It should be harder than the cutting material of work piece It should be tough It should be cheap It should be high resistant to wear to ensure longer tool life It should be able to be fabricated and shaped easily. 11. CUTTING TOOL MATERIAL high speed steel high carbon steel tungsten carbide cemented carbide satellite ceramic cutting materials diamond VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (2 MARKS) What is depth of cut? What is cutting speed? List any two cutting tool materials. What are chip breakers? Define feed. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:- (4 MARKS) 1. What are the side rake angle and back rack angle? Show by sketch. 2. What is tool signature? What is its importance? 3. Draw the sketch of single point cutting tool with complete nomenclature. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:- (10 MARKS) 1. Explain the effects of various types of heats producing during cutting. 2. Write short note on, desirable properties of cutting tool material.

UNIT-II SYLLABUSPrinciple of turning. Function of various parts of a lathe. Classification and specification of various types of lathe. Work holding devices. Lathe tools and operations:- plain and step turning, facing, parting off. Taper turning, eccentric turning, drilling, reaming, boring, threading and knurling, form turning and spinning. Cutting parameters- speed, feed, depth of cut for various materials and various operations, machining time. Speed ratio, preferred number of speed selection. Lathe accessories: canters, dogs, different types of chucks, collets, faceplate, angle plate, mandrel, steady rest, follower rest, taper turning attachment, tool post grinder, milling attachment, quick change device of tools. Introduction to capstan and turret lathe. 1. LATHE Lathe is a machine, which removes the metal from a piece of work to the required shape and size. Lathe is one of the most important machine tools in the metal working industry. A lathe operates on the principle of a rotating work piece and a fixed cutting tool. 2. FUNCTION OF LATHE Lathe is to remove excess material in the form of chips by rotating the work piece against a stationary cutting tool

3. MAIN PART OF LATHE Lathe Machine is also known as “Centre Lathe”, because it has two centres between which the job can be held and rotated. The main parts of centre lathe are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bed Head stock Tailstock Carriage Feed mechanisms 4. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF LATHE

5. WORKING PRINCIPLES OF LATHE It holds the work between two supports called centres. Chuck or Face plate is also used for holding the work. Chuck or face plate is mounted on machine spindle Cutting tool is held and supported on a tool post. Movement of the job is rotation about spindle axis Tool is fed against the revolving work Movement of the tool is either parallel to or at any inclination to the work axis 6. TYPES OF LATHE MACHINE 1. Speed lathe 2. Engine or centre lathe 3. Bench lathe 4. Tool room lathe 5. Capstan and turret lathe 6. Automatic lathe 7. Special purpose lathe 7. LATHE OPERATIONS

8. LATHE ACCESSORIES 1. Centres 2. Lathe dog or carrier 3. Chucks 4. Collets 5. Face plates 6. Driving plate 7. Angle plate 8. Mandrels 9. Rests 10. Milling attachment 11. Taper turning attachment. 9. ADVANTAGES OF LATHE MACHINE Greater production over a given period. More economy in floor space. Improvement in accuracy. Floor space maintenance and inventory requirements are reduced. More consistently accurate work than turrets. More constant flow of production. Scrap loss is reduced by reducing operator error. During machine operation operator is free to operate another machine/ can inspect completed parts. MCQ QUESTUONS:1. a) b) c) d) Which of the following is not the type of lathe machine Speed lathe Engine lathe Bench lathe Milling machine

2. a) b) c) d) The term ‘A’ in specifications of lathe machine stands for Length of bed Distance between centres Maximum diameter Diameter of the work that can be turned over the cross slide. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (2 MARKS) What is turning? What are the functions of tool post in lathe? Define facing operation. Define taper turning. What is the function of steady rest in a lathe machines? SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:- (4 MARKS) 1. List various parts of lathe. 2. Give the brief classification of lathe. 3. How threads are cut on lathe. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:- (10 MARKS) 1. Sketch and explain the various parts of a simple lathe machine. 2. Explain the various operations performed on lathe machine.

2. Multi Point Cutting Tool The cutting tools may also be classified according to the motion as follow: 1. Linear motion tools 2. Rotary motion tools 3. Linear and Rotary motion tools 3. VARIOUS TYPES OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOLS AND THEIR USES 3.1 Tools for Lathe machines: 1. Turning tool 2. Facing tool 3.

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