MSE 460: Electronic Materials, Devices, And Processing

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MSE 460: Electronic Materials,Devices, and ProcessingLecture 1: Introduction and OrientationQing Cao-University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignDepartment of Materials Science and EngineeringDepartment of ChemistryDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringFrederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

Self-Introduction2004-200922009-2018Research Interest:Electronic MaterialsUnconventional Electronic DevicesEmail: qingcao2@Illinois.eduOffice: MRL 1008Office hour: Friday 2-3 pmDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering

Targets of MSE 4601) Understand the processing technologies for electronic materials.2) Understand the operational mechanism of various devices,3) Understand the correlation between material properties and deviceperformances,4) Develop the technical insight into the choice of the most appropriatematerials and processing techniques for different applications, andobtain of grasp of the most important challenges.Engineering is the art ofintelligent compromise.3Department of Materials Science and Engineering

About MSE 460What will be covered in this class?Overview and fundamentals of electronic materialsLecture 1: Introduction and OrientationLecture 2: Overview of Electronic MaterialsLecture 3: Free electron Fermi gasLecture 4: Energy bandsLecture 5: Carrier Concentration in SemiconductorsLecture 6: Shallow dopants and Deep-level trapsLecture 7: Silicon MaterialsLecture 8: OxidationLecture 9: DopingLecture 10: Drift and diffusionLecture 11: Generation and recombination4Department of Materials Science and Engineering

About MSE 460p-n junctions: Physics and fabricationLecture 12: Electrostatics of p-n junctions (I)Lecture 13: Electrostatics of p-n junctions (II)Lecture 14: Current Voltage Characteristics of p-n JunctionsLecture 15: Metal Semiconductor interface and Schottky DiodeLecture 16: Lithography I: Basics and Photoresist ChemistryLecture 17: Lithography II: EUV and Novel Patterning TechniquesLecture 18: Etching OverviewLecture 19: Wet EtchingLecture 20: Dry Etching5Department of Materials Science and Engineering

About MSE 460p-n junctions: LEDs and solar cellsLecture 22: Light Emitting DiodesLecture 23: LED MaterialsLecture 24: Physics of Solar CellsHomework 4Lecture 25: Mid-term ExamLecture 26: Solar cell-Materials (I)Lecture 27: Solar cell-Materials (II)Lecture 28: Materials Deposition: PVDLecture 29: Materials Deposition: CVD (I)Lecture 30: Materials Deposition: CVD (II)Lecture 31: Transparent Conductive Oxide6Department of Materials Science and Engineering

About MSE 460MOSFETsLecture 32: Electrostatics of MOS CapacitorLecture 33: C-V Characteristics of MOS CapacitorLecture 34: Operation of MOSFETLecture 35: Subthreshold Region of MOSFET And Device ScalingLecture 36: Velocity SaturationLecture 37: Short channel effectsLecture 38: Non-ideal semiconductor-gate dielectric interfaceLecture 39: High-k/metal gateLecture 40: 3D Channel and New Channel Materials for MOSFETsLecture 41: Fabrication Flow of Si MOSFETsLecture 42: Electrodeposition7Department of Materials Science and Engineering

GradingGrading will be composed of three elements1) Homework (6x3% 18%)6 homework in total.Collaboration policy: Limited homework collaborationHomework will be due after the end of the next week, latehomework will not be accepted.2) Exams (2 exams for 82%)Mid-term exam: 36%Final exam: 46%Exams will be open note (1 page, single-sided letter sheet)Topics covered in mid-term will not be specifically tested in final8Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Course WebpageWebsite: MSE460.matse.Illinois.edu9Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Textbooks10Department of Materials Science and Engineering

AdvertisementIf you are interested in obtaining hands-on experiences in electronicmaterials research, you are welcome to discuss with me about theopportunities of research assistants in my group!Email: qingcao2@illinois.edu11Department of Materials Science and Engineering

First TransistorJohn BardeenWalter BrattainWilliam Shockley1212Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Your MotivationsFor undergraduate students:1) Overall understanding of the field of electronic materials andelectronic devices, and make informed choices if you would like togo to graduate school.2) Scientific knowledge of cutting edge electronics, which will makeyou distinct if you would like to find a job in either consulting firms orwork in the public policy.For graduate students:1) Pass the qualify exam on electronic materials2) Help you to kick start your research: know the concepts, appreciatethe problems, understand literatures, be able to communicate withyou colleagues including your advisor.1313Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Overview of Semiconductor IndustryAttributes of thesemiconductor industry:1) High capital investment:Intel fab 42 at Arizona: 7BGF fab 8 at Malta: 8.5B2) High R&D investment:Around 20% of total revenue3) High profit margin:14Industry average grossmargin about 60%Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Players/Job Opportunities in Semiconductor IndustryIntegrated Design andManufacture (IDM)Logic:Intel, SamsungFablessIBM, AMDQualcomm, BroadcomNvidiaMediaTekAnalog:TI, Analog Devices, STFoundryNXP-FreescaleTSMCUMCMemory:Global FoundryMicron, Hynix15ToolApplied MaterialsASMLLam ResearchNovellusVarianDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering

Progress in ElectronicsComputationMemory1956 IBM SAGEcomputer:1MW13,000 transistors,vacuum tubes,and diodes.2016 QualcommSnapdragon 835: 1W3B transistors.161980IBM 338020GB4400lbsCost: 0.8M2014Sandisk512 GB0.001lbsCost: 200Department of Materials Science and Engineering

350World GDP (in Trillions)140120100Estimated additional value added toGDP in the last 20 years, due to the paceof innovation by Moore’s Law250802006015040100205001980 85 19901730095 2000 05 20100Semiconductor Sales (in B)Economic ImpactDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering

No. of Transistors per CPUGreatest Evolutionary Technological Progress109108107106105104Valid for over 50 years31018“If the auto industry advanced as rapidlyas the semiconductorindustry, a Rolls Royce wouldget a half a million miles pergallon, and it would becheaper to throw itaway than to park it.”-Gordon Moore1970 198019902000 2010Year2020Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Fundamental Driving Forces for Semiconductor IndustryScaling (Moore’s Law)About every two years:30% Reduction in W anddevice pitch– 50% area reduction (Cost)– 2X increase in device/area30% drop in power/operation19Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Dennard Theory20Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Fundamental Driving Forces for Semiconductor IndustryMaterials innovations21From the 1960s through the1990s, only a handful ofmaterials were used, mostnotably silicon, silicon oxide,silicon nitride and aluminum.Soon, by 2020, more than 40different materials will be inhigh-volume production,including more “exotic”materials such as hafnium,ruthenium, zirconium,strontium, et. al.Department of Materials Science and Engineering

As A MatSE Class We Will CoverNew pattering materials: EUV resist, di-block copolymersNew materials processing: transfer printing, additive manufacturingNew materials for LEDs and solar cells:organics, quantum dots, CdTe, CIGS, perovskite, et. al.New materials for transistors:III-Vs, high k/metal gates, nanotubes, graphenes, 2D TMDCs, et. al.New materials for memory:PCM, oxides/chalcogenides for memristors22Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Technology TodayIBM Power 924 cores with 8B transistorsMulti-junction solar cellEfficiency 50%IBM Flash System57TB per building block23Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Challenges Ahead for Our (Your) GenerationDevices for new paradigms of computingMore-Moore platform for mobile computing and IoTTechnologies for DatacentersHeterogenous integration for low power and multifunctional system-on-chipBetter solar cells for renewable energy in TW regime .Key enabler: New Electronic MaterialsMore functionalityBetter performanceLower cost24Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Summary1. Logistics about MSE 4602. Overview of semiconductor industry3. Fundamental driving forces for semiconductor industry: Physicalscaling and new materials4. Current status and challenges for our (your) generationAny Questions/Comments/Suggestions?25Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Lecture 1: Introduction and Orientation. Lecture 2: Overview of Electronic Materials . Lecture 3: Free electron Fermi gas . Lecture 4: Energy bands . Lecture 5: Carrier Concentration in Semiconductors . Lecture 6: Shallow dopants and Deep -level traps . Lecture 7: Silicon Materials . Lecture 8: Oxidation. Lecture

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